invisible hit counter Agricultural Biotechnology - 10 Downing Nyc

Biotechnology is the use or development of biological processes from a biological agent to produce products and services beneficial to humans, better known as modern biotechnology as it encompasses chemical engineering, including genetic engineering.

Biotechnology has been practiced by humans for hundreds of years, using microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast to create useful foods such as tempeh, bread, wine, cheese, and yogurt. However, the term biotechnology only developed after Pasteur discovered the fermentation process in winemaking.

Microorganisms have been used in agriculture to control harmful insects and increase soil fertility since the 19th century. Microorganisms have also been used extensively in the treatment of industrial waste during this decade.

 

Conventional/traditional biotechnology is biotechnology that uses microorganisms to produce alcohol, acetic acid, sugar, or food ingredients such as tempeh, tape, oncom, and soy sauce. Microorganisms as free workers only need to give a starter so that they work optimally.

Microorganisms are capable of transforming food or other materials into materials better than the previous ones that can be used. Biotechnological products that are assisted by microorganisms, for example in the fermentation process, cassava soybeans that can be easily transformed into tempeh, soy sauce, tape, etc., or changed in shape and performance, including fresh milk that easily spoils into cheese and yogurt.

The above biotechnological processes are considered past biotechnology now or later some people mention conventional biotechnology programs. Characteristics that occur in conventional biotechnology, namely the use of living beings directly and not yet consciously the use of enzymes. Although conventional biotechnology is an ancient product, it underlies the emergence of various biotechnological sciences.

For example, agricultural biotechnology: Hydroponic planting (derived from the Greek word hydro meaning water and ponos meaning work) hydroponics means working with water or working with water. In practice, hydroponics is carried out using different methods depending on the media used.

The methods used in hydroponics include the hydroponic method (using water media), the sand culture method (using sand media), and the porous method (using gravel media, broken bricks, and others). The sand method can be classified as successful and easy to use.

 

In general, people cultivate with soil. However, hydroponics no longer uses soil, requiring only water plus nutrients as a food source for plants. The basic elements that plants need are water, minerals, light, and CO2. The light was filled with sunlight. Similarly, CO2 is abundant in the air.

Meanwhile, the need for water and minerals can be met with a hydroponic system, which means that the presence of soil is not the main thing. Some of the advantages of farming with hydroponics include plants that can be cultivated in any location; there is no risk of crop damage from flooding, lack of water, and erosion; don’t need too big land; faster plant growth; free from pests; the result is high quality and quantity; save maintenance costs.

Types of plants grown hydroponically from the ornamental group include Philodendron, Dracaena, Aglonema, and Spatypilum. Vegetables that can be hydroponized include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, lettuce, mustard, kale, and spinach. Types of fruit plants that can be hydroponized include guava, cantaloupe, bangkok kedondong, and star fruit.

Modern biotechnology in agriculture is applied in the development of biotechnology by utilizing scientific principles through research. In modern biotechnology, people strive to produce products effectively and efficiently. It is not only used in the food industry but has covered various fields such as genetic engineering, pollution management, the creation of energy sources, and so on.

With the existence of various research and development in science and technology, biotechnology will have greater advantages in the future. For the example:

(1.) The production of nitrogen-fixing plants, where nitrogen (N2) is an essential element of DNA and RNA proteins. Nodules are often found on the roots of legumes. These tubers contain Rhizobium bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the air, allowing legumes to meet their own nitrogen needs. Using biotechnology, researchers are trying to engineer

Rhizobium bacteria so that they can live in roots other than legumes. In addition, attempts are also being made to increase the ability of bacteria to fix nitrogen by using gene recombination techniques. The above two efforts have been made to reduce or eliminate the use of nitrogen fertilizers, which are currently widely used in agricultural land and cause adverse side effects.

 

(2.) Creation of pest-resistant plants produced by genetic engineering with gene combination and cell culture. For example, to obtain disease-resistant potato plants, a gene that determines disease-resistant traits is needed.

The gene is then inserted into the potato plant cell. The potato plant cells are then grown into disease-resistant potato plants. Furthermore, the potato plant can be propagated and spread.

 

(3.) Future fuel biotechnology: Two types of fuels are produced from waste fermentation, namely biogas (methane) and gasohol (alcohol). Future alternative fuels to replace oil include biogas and gasohol.

Biogas is produced in the anaerobic phase of the fermentation of living waste. In the anaerobic phase, methane gas is produced, which is burned and used as fuel.

 

(4.) Transgenic plant technology is a plant that has been infiltrated with foreign DNA as a carrier of the desired trait. DNA can come from different plant species. To produce transgenic plants, genetic engineering and vector techniques are required as carriers of the desired trait genes.

DNA from the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, better known as the Ti plasmid (tumor-inducing plasmid), was used as the vector. Ti plasmids can enter plant cells during the infection process. GMO technology has been applied to several crops such as corn, cotton, tomatoes, rice, soybeans, and papaya.

Several genes that cause variations in soybean plants have been included in soybeans. The cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis called Bt corn has been inserted into corn, which causes corn to produce proteins that can kill insects like butterflies.

These transgenic plants do not need to be sprayed with pesticides to get rid of pests and diseases because inserting these genes produces endotoxin compounds (toxic compounds), so transgenic plants can eradicate pests with the toxic compounds in them.

 

(5.) Biotechnology in the formation of new superior plant varieties. This is necessary to meet the growing demand for food, while the agricultural area tends to decrease. Better productivity is expected from this superior facility. In addition, in order to increase yields, efforts are also being made to improve nutrient content, environmental sustainability, harvest age and various other added values, e.g. B. increasing the nutrient content of banana, chilli, strawberry and sweet potato plants; Improved taste, for example in tomatoes, chillies, beans and soybeans; Improved product quality, e.g. E.g.

bananas, chillies, strawberries with better freshness and texture; Reduction of allergic reactions, for example with legumes with a lower content of allergenic protein; The content of medicinal ingredients, for example in tomatoes high in lycopene, useful as an antioxidant to reduce cancer, onions with allicin content to lower cholesterol and rice with vitamin A and iron content to treat anemia and blindness;

Plants useful in the production of vaccines and medicines to treat human diseases, for example in tobacco plants that have been modified to produce vaccines against cancer; Plants with better nutrient content for animal feed.

Applying agricultural biotechnology to plants can also make the process of growing crops easier for farmers. For example, in combating weeds, namely by breeding plants that are resistant to certain types of herbicides. An example is a crop called Roundup Ready, which consists of soybeans, canola (a type of oil-producing crop), and corn that are resistant to the Roundup herbicide. In today’s world, many new plant species have been released as a result of the application of biotechnology.

For example, around 30 kinds of transgenic plants were developed in China in 2006, including rice, corn, cotton, potato, soybean, virus-resistant tomato, baryflower-colored petunia, virus-resistant pepper, and pest-resistant cotton. that have been released for production. , for example, Rice Golden Rice, The application of biotechnology to rice plants has been carried out for a long time.

One of its products is the golden rice ray, introduced in 2001. It is hoped that this rice variety can help millions of people suffering from blindness and death due to vitamin A and iron deficiencies. Vitamin A is important for vision, immune response, cell repair, bone growth, reproduction, and embryonic growth. The name Golden Rice is given because the grains produced are yellow like gold because they contain carotenoids. Genetic engineering is the method used to produce Golden Rice. This is because there is no rice germplasm capable of synthesizing carotenoids.

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