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Sukmaraga corn cultivation technique

Corn is an annual crop. A life cycle is completed in 80-150 days. The first half of the cycle is the vegetative growth stage and the second half is the generative growth stage. Tall corn plants are very different. Although corn plants generally grow between 1m and 3m in height, some varieties can reach 6m in height. Plant height is usually measured from the soil surface to the top segment in front of the male flowers. Although some varieties can produce sprouts (e.g. rice), corn generally does not have this ability.

Corn roots are classified as fibrous roots that can reach a depth of 8 m, although most are in the 2 m range. Fairly mature plants have adventitious roots emerging from the lower stems that help keep the plant upright. Corn stalks are upright and easily visible, like sorghum and sugarcane, but not like rice or wheat. There are mutants whose stems do not grow quickly, so the plant has the shape of a rosette. segmented stems. The segments are wrapped in leaf sheaths emerging from the book. Corn stalks are sturdy enough, but not many contain lignin. Corn leaves are perfect leaves with an elongated shape. Ligules are located between the midrib and the leaf blade. The leaf bone is parallel to the mother leaf bone. Some leaf surfaces are slippery and some are hairy. Stomata on corn leaves are dumbbell-shaped, which is typical of the Poaceae family. Each stoma is surrounded by fan-shaped epidermal cells. This structure plays an important role in the plant’s response to a lack of water in leaf cells. Maize has separate male and female flowers (decline) in one plant (monoecious). Each flower has a distinctive floral structure from the Poaceae tribe called a floret. In maize, the two flowers are bounded by a pair of glumes (singular: glumes). At the top of the plant male flowers grow in the form of a wreath (inflorescence). Yellow pollen and unique aroma. The female flowers are arranged in spikes. Cobs grow from the book, between the stem and the midrib of the leaf. In general, a plant can only produce one productive cob despite having multiple female flowers. Some superior cultivars can produce more than one productive cob and are referred to as productive cultivars. Male flowers are usually ready for pollination 2-5 days earlier than female flowers (protandry).

Benefits and uses of corn

One of the benefits of corn is that it is a diuretic (soft urine) due to its high potassium content, especially in the hair and young cobs. Also, the thiamine content can dry out wounds such as chickenpox wounds. The phosphorus content is good for bones and teeth.

Today’s corn production cannot meet domestic demand, so imports are required. This situation cannot be tolerated as it will harm farmers who need fodder where corn as the main ingredient in fodder production accounts for 51%. To overcome this problem it is necessary to look for maize varieties that can produce up to 8.5 tons/ha. Therefore, it is necessary to have a technological reference for growing Sukmaraga corn so that farmers trying to develop Sukmaraga corn can be successful according to the potential yield of the corn.

It is hoped that with the success of farmers using Sukmaraga corn, corn production can increase. Considering that Sukmaraga corn is compound corn that can be replanted up to 3 (three) times, unlike hybrid corn that only has 1 (one) crop, you have to buy it again so it will be enough, Input for production save facilities.

1. Land preparation

Soil plowed 15-20 cm, loosened and leveled, or no tillage for loose/light soil.
Clean from plant remains and disturbing plants.

2. Plants

Make a planting hole 5 cm deep.
Spacing 75 cm x 40 cm (2 plants/cluster) or 75 cm x 20 cm (1 plant/cluster)
Place the seeds in the planting hole and cover them with soil or manure.

3. Fertilization

Fertilizer dosage: for what was studied in Lampung, 350 kg urea/ha + 150 kg SP 36/ha + 100 kg KCL/ha.
Fertilizer is given 2 times, the first 7-10 days after planting (200 kg urea/ha + 150 kg SP 36/ha + 100 kg KCL/ha) the second: 30-35 days (250 kg urea/ha).
Fertilizer is given in holes / rows + 10 cm
In addition, the plants are covered with soil.

4. Weeding

The first weeding is at 15 days of age after planting.
The second weeding at the age of 28-30 days after planting is done before the second fertilizing.

5. Pest and disease control

Downy mildew can be combated by: 1 kg of corn seed mixed with 2 g of Ridomil or Saromil dissolved in 7.5 – 10 ml of water. Meanwhile, Furadan 3G insecticide was applied through the shoots (3-4 grains/plant) to control the borer.

6. Water supply (especially dry season)

At the time before planting, 15 days after planting, 30 days after planting, 45 days after planting, and 75 days after planting (6 times). Water sources can be from surface irrigation or shallow bottom pumps (wells).

7. Harvest

Corn is ready to harvest when the husks are dried and light brown, the seeds are shiny and won’t leave marks when pressed with nails.

Some obstacles to growing hybrid corn
Corn is a crop that farmers are very familiar with. This raw material is one of the most important food ingredients. In some areas of Indonesia, maize is grown as a staple food alongside rice and tubers. Not surprisingly, the plan to develop hybrid maize in Indonesia to reach five million tons of production in 2010 is a great opportunity for farmers to increase production and income.

It should be noted that corn is produced by farmers. So far, it has been obtained from traditionally grown local seeds. In addition to low productivity, local corn is not sold as a raw material for the feed industry in the domestic market. The social situation of the maize farmers is also a challenge for the development of hybrid maize. Most farmers still depend on the bounty of nature. Unfamiliar with technology, such as the use of fertilizers and medicines. In fact, without special treatment, hybrid corn seeds do not reach the standard level of productivity, which is 7-8 tons per hectare.

By mutaqin

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