invisible hit counter Organic farming controls pesticide residues in agricultural products - 10 Downing Nyc
Organic farming controls pesticide residues in agricultural products

The era of chemical fertilizers and pesticides entered the agricultural world when artificial fertilizers were first discovered in the 19th century. The advantages of using artificial fertilizers are that they are cheaper, faster to produce, and easier to distribute. However, there are long-term negative effects ranging from soil fertility degradation to problems with hazardous chemicals. In addition to chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticide residues can also be present in the resulting product.

Some of the other negative impacts of conventional farming systems include pollution of groundwater and surface water, threats to human and animal health from the use of pesticides and feed additives, and reduction in biodiversity. In addition, there is an increase in the resistance of pest organisms to pesticides, a decrease in soil productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, reduced organic matter, a greater reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and risks to human health and safety than agricultural work.

To suppress these adverse effects, it is necessary to promote crop cultivation that reduces the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides by developing residue-free crop cultivation to produce healthy and high-quality crop products. Chemical fertilizers need to be replaced by organic fertilizers, while chemical pesticides need to be replaced by alternative control technologies that make more use of biological materials and methods, including natural enemies, biological pesticides, and pheromones. In this way, the negative effects of the use of fertilizers and pesticides on health and the environment can be reduced.

Residue-free cultivation or organic farming is no different from conventional rice cultivation. Organic farming usually begins with the selection of non-hybrid plant seeds intended to conserve biodiversity. Non-hybrid plants themselves can be grown technically without using chemicals or can grow and produce under natural conditions. While hybrid plants are usually conditioned, chemical fertilizers, for example, need to be used or plant-disturbing organisms only need to be eradicated with chemical pesticides. Another difference between non-hybrid rice plants and hybrid rice plants is the use of base fertilizer.

Organic farming is an agricultural farming system that uses natural ingredients without the use of synthetic chemicals. Organic farming is developing due to public awareness of high-energy input farming systems such as synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides that can harm the environment and are not good for human health. Stop using chemical pesticides to control crop pests, and switch to alternative treatment methods.
There are at least 4 eco-friendly ways to control crop pests, including:

1. Use of biologically active substances in the form of Bacillus thrungiensis bacteria

Bacillus thrungiensis bacteria can be used as biological agents and pest control agents. Bacillus thrungiensis (Bt) bacteria are capable of producing delta-endotoxin compounds in the form of crystal protein toxins that can kill pests. These bacteria are mixed with liquid as glue and then sprayed on infected plants/pests and diseases. When the caterpillar/pest eats leaves that have been sprayed with liquid containing spores and Bt crystal toxin, the Bt crystal toxin binds to special receptors on the caterpillar’s intestinal mucosa, then the caterpillar stops eating, vomits and the stools become watery (diarrhea). ). A few hours later, the caterpillars are decomposed and Bt spores and intestinal bacteria penetrate the caterpillar’s body cavity. After about 1-2 days, the caterpillar becomes poisoned, stops moving, and eventually dies. Corn plants sprayed with Bt, for example, are free of weevils. Bacillus thrungiensis bacteria can also kill moths on apples, cabbage, peas, broccoli, and potatoes. Some of the Bt bacteria crystals were sold commercially in the market at plant seed/agricultural produce stalls.

2. Technical and biological control of plant pests (biopesticides)

The technical control of plant-disturbing organisms can be carried out manually by directly picking up pests that have infested plants. Biological control is carried out through the use of biological agents (biopesticides). For example, the use of Bt bacteria is described in point 1 above.

3. Control of plant-disrupting organisms with agricultural drugs and pesticides

Controlling plant-disrupting organisms with pesticides (pesticides) remains very popular in Indonesia’s agricultural communities. Different types of pesticides are sold in the market with different brands, be it pesticides to kill pests (insecticides), weed killers (herbicides), or fungicides to kill fungi (fungicides). In organic farming systems, pesticides can still be used for control. However, the use of pesticides must be by the recommended dose to minimize the occurrence of soil, water, and air pollution.

4. Destruction of plant-disturbing organisms with the mulching technique

Mulch applied to the beds, often used by farmers, is very useful in controlling several plant-damaging organisms that damage crops. The process is that when plastic mulch is exposed to sunlight, the light is reflected on the upper plant organs, so UV light inhibits the growth and development of caterpillar larvae. Plastic mulch is also useful for maintaining soil moisture, regulating water runoff, preventing soil structure from remaining loose, preventing nutrient/humus erosion due to heavy rainfall, and so on. Therefore, when growing horticultural crops on plantations/rice fields, plastic mulch is used.

Of the four techniques above, they are more environmentally friendly, and only the excessive use of agricultural medicines and pesticides often harms the environment.

By mutaqin

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