Rain rice is a kind of paddy field whose water system is highly dependent on rain, with no permanent irrigation structures. With the onset of the rainy season, rice cultivation begins. Rainfed Land is the second rice barn after irrigated rice fields. However, some issues stand out in the countryside, namely productivity, which is still low due to the unpredictable rainwater supply. In addition, low soil fertility and pH, and compact soil physical properties, these problems are obstacles to the production of lowland rain-fed rice.
The ecosystem of irrigated paddy fields is very different from the ecosystem of irrigated paddy fields, where rice is planted at the beginning of the rainy season, there is still water before the dry season, crops or vegetables can be planted because the planting depends on the rainy season. The potential for rain-fed rice fields in West Sulawesi is fairly widespread throughout the region, especially in Kab. Mamuju has a significant land area to support the increase in rice production, so a strategy to improve the productivity of rain-fed rice fields is needed. We can implement this strategy through an approach to the integrated cultivation management method for rain rice in specific locations where integrated technology components are in place to increase rice productivity.
The definition of Integrated Plant Management is:
Integrated crop management is an approach to managing land, water, crops, and climate in an integrated/holistic/holistic way and can be applied sustainably. Integrated crop management can be represented as a management system that combines different management subsystems, such as Pest control and plant spacing, plant nuisance diseases/organisms, and staff. Integrated crop management is a way to sustainably maintain or increase rice productivity and production efficiency by taking into account the resources and skills of farmers. Integrated crop production emphasizes the participation principle. That is, farmers, play an active role in selecting and testing technologies that suit local conditions and farmers’ skills through a learning process in the form of a field laboratory. The integrated crop management approach is recognized by:
• An assessment of the needs and aspirations of local farmers,
• the need to integrate crop, land, water, and nuisance management according to farmers’ desires and capabilities,
• Suitability, interaction, and synergy between technology components and
• A dynamic cultivation system in line with technological developments and farmers’ skills
This integrated asset management is one of the ways/efforts to increase production but still be efficient in production costs, while the technological component consists of basic components and options tailored to the specific local area that is most suitable for the application. The chosen technology component can be the basis when the Needs and Opportunities Analysis (KKP) prioritizes these problems as a necessity to find solutions to the main problems of a region. Essentially, farmers play an active role in articulating the priority problems they face and then grouping those problems into two basic technology components or options. The basic technology component is the technology that we must apply while the choice can be made or not. The problems we often encounter in the field are uneven crop growth, lack of knowledge about seed quality, imbalanced use of fertilizers, lack of organic matter, and very heavy weed growth. So that this affects the production results. Through an integrated crop management approach, we can anticipate rain rice fields by applying multiple technologies as follows:
Using Superior Varieties
Using new superior varieties that can adapt to the environment to ensure good plant growth, high yields, and good quality and taste of the rice accepted by the market. Alternative use of new superior cultivars can be useful to break the life cycle of pests and diseases. Examples of superior cultivars are Mekongga, Chiherang, and Ciliwung.
New superior strains are strains that have been approved by the government and have benefits and potential yields and/or other traits. Superior varieties can be the result of breeding, either conventionally referred to as superior inbred varieties, or through unconventional/non-conventional methods, usually referred to as superior hybrid varieties.
Quality and healthy seeds
Quality seed is a seed with high purity and vigor. In general, high-quality seeds can be obtained from labeled seeds that have passed the certification process. Quality seeds produce healthy seeds with lots of roots.
The quality of inbred rice seeds can be tested with a flotation technique using a 2-3% saline solution or a ZA fertilizer solution of 20-30 g/litre water. The seeds that sink are consumed and the seeds that float are discarded. The quality of the hybrid seeds was tested by a germination test.
The advantage of using quality seeds is that the seeds grow quickly and simultaneously; when sown, strong and healthy seeds are produced; at the time of transplanting, the seedlings grow quickly; as well as the optimal number of plants to achieve high yields.
P and K. Nutrient Management
Providing balanced fertilizers is providing fertilizers that are tailored to the nutrient needs of the plant and the nutrient supply in the soil. The P and K fertilization adjusted to the results of the analysis of the soil nutrient status of the paddy fields can be determined directly in the field using the PUTS tool (Paddy Soil Test Equipment). The working principle of PUTS is to semi-quantitatively measure P and K nutrients in available form using the colorimetric (dye) method. Measurement of soil P and K status was divided into 3 categories, namely low (R), medium (S), and high (T). PUTS or Rice Soil Testing Equipment is a tool consisting of liquid sampling and supporting equipment to analyze the nutrient content of paddy fields, which can be used in the field quickly, easily, inexpensively, and accurately. PUTS is designed to measure the values of N, P, k, and pH of the soil. The determination of the plants’ N-nutrient requirements is supported by a leaf color chart, which is accompanied by instructions for use. The use of this tool is to determine and determine the nutrient status of paddy fields in the field to create fertilization recommendations determined according to the needs of specific plant locations.
Provide organic ingredients
Organic matter in the form of crop residues, straw, manure, green manure, and compost (humus) are the main components of organic manure, which can be in solid or liquid form. Organic matter is useful for improving the physical, chemical, and biological fertility of the soil. Therefore, the straw has to be fed back to the paddy fields by soaking it or made into compost or made into animal feed whose manure is made into manure.
According to research, in rice plants, part of the K-nutrients from fertilizers can be replaced by rice straw, which is recycled as organic fertilizer. The K content in straw is usually around 1% so 5 tons of straw contain 50 kg of K equivalent to 50 kg of KCL/ha fertilization. In addition to K, straw also contains other nutrients such as N, P, Ca, Mg, micronutrients, growth-regulating hormones and organic acids very useful for plants. The addition of straw and other organic matter can improve the physical and biological properties of the soil, which can indirectly increase nutrients and make them more efficient for plants.
Integrated weed control
Weed control can be done by:
(1) Perfect tillage: regulation of water in paddy fields, use of certified rice seeds, exclusive use of compost from plant residues and manure compost, use of herbicides when weeds are high.
(2) Manual weed control with Gasrok or Hedgehog as this is in synergy with other management measures.
(3) Manual weed control is only effective when the water conditions in the paddy fields are dense or the soil is saturated with water.