Arabica is a type of coffee that comes from the highlands of western Ethiopia. This coffee is called Arabica because this coffee bean was brought to a lowland area in Arabia in the 7th century. Generally, this type of coffee grows at an elevation of about 3,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level.
The subtropics are ideal areas for Arabica coffee, as these areas generally have loose soil (or volcanic soil), consistent rainfall, and adequate sunlight for Arabica to thrive. However, Arabica is not an easy-care type of coffee. Coffee plants are very susceptible to pests and diseases.
The requirements for growing Arabica coffee plants are 800–2000 m above sea level, while Robusta is <400 m above sea level, temperature ranges 15–25 °C, rainfall 1,750–3000 mm/year, and 3 months dry. The depth of the soil solum is at least 30 cm. Humidity is 70-80% Land slope is 0-40 degrees.
Requirements for coffee growing include soil pH 5.5-6.5, topsoil at least 2%, fertile soil structure, and brittle to a relative depth of >100 cm.
Preparation of the planting holes 3 months before planting. Hole size 50 x 50 x 50 cm, 60 x 60 x 60 cm, 75 x 75 x 75 cm or 1 x 1 x 1 m for heavy soil. Excavated earth is brought into the left and right of the hole. The hole is left open for 3 months. 2 – 4 weeks before planting, the excavated earth mixed with boiled manure up to 15/20 kg/hole is put back into the hole and the backfill is not compacted.
The coffee seeds are sown by digging out the planting hole that was originally closed. Gently peel off the seedling’s root sheath. Put the seeds in the planting hole up to the root neck. Close the planting hole again until it opens up a bit. If coffee plants need to be replanted, check after a month that the seeds have been planted to see if any dead seeds are found and need to be replaced. The embroidering was stopped after 6 months of planting the plants, then the next transplanting was done at the beginning of the next rainy season. Tree population for embroidery 20%/ha.
Protective trees keep the coffee plant from bearing too much fruit so that the plant’s strength is not exhausted so quickly. Cover trees are planted 1–2 years before coffee planting or utilize existing shade trees. Plant species for shelter trees include Lamboro, Dadap, Sengon, etc. The branch height of the sheltering tree is cultivated to 2 x height of the coffee tree. Protective pruning can be carried out during the rainy season.
Weeding is the cleaning of weeds around coffee plants. Weeding can be done together with loosening the soil. For adult plants, this is done twice a year.
Pruning aims to create the ideal tree shape. Pruning is necessary to; provide good stems and branches for the next phase of coffee cherries. Maintain a balance between the total leaf and plant area. Prevents excessive branches and gunshot death. Reduce excessive inflorescences (especially inflorescences harvested 2-3 times) on branches. Maintains the ideal tree shape. Pruning is carried out on 1-3-year-old plants.
The basic principle of topiary is that the tree does not grow too tall, the growth of the side branches is stronger and longer to help fertilization, and the ideal height of the pruning tree is 1.5-1.8 m. The top main branch should be an internodal height get cut. Side branches that grow to a height of 20 cm should be trimmed clean.
Choose 2-3 strong secondary branches to be distributed on each main branch to be tended and the rest will be pruned and pruned at the end of the dry season so that the branch growth is better and stronger.
Production pruning is carried out to maintain a balance between the number of leaves and plants and to create ideal ventilation so that the humidity of the microclimate around the branches is preserved (avoiding disease).
The basic principles of pruning production are removing water shoots growing upwards, removing worm sprigs and turning branches, removing branches affected by pests and diseases, and pruning is carried out 3-4 times a year and performed at the beginning of the rainy season.
While rejuvenation pruning is also known as rejuvenation pruning, it is performed on old and less-yielding plants, namely rejuvenating the stem and rejuvenating the branches.
The dose of fertilizing coffee per tree is 1 year old: 50g urea, 40g TSP, and 40g KCL. Age 2 years: 100 g urea, 80 g TSP, and 80 g KCL. Age 3 years: 150 g urea, 100 g TSP, and 100 g KCL.
Age 4 years: 200 g urea, 100 g TSP, and 100 g KCL. Age 5-10 years: 300 grams of urea, 150 grams of TSP, and 240 grams of KCL. Age from 10 years: 500 g urea, 200 g TSP, and 320 g KCL.
Proper application of the right fertilizer can result in the amount of fertilizer being lost through evaporation and some leaching through the rain. Arabica coffee is fertilized on the outside of the roots parallel to the crown of the plant. The fertilizer is immersed in a circle with a depth of 5-10 cm.
Fertilizing parallel to the outside of the canopy should prevent the newly applied fertilizer from coming into direct contact with the plant roots. Direct contact can cause root hair cells to become damaged, causing plant roots to become stressed.
Pest and disease control
Control is an activity to reduce or control the population of pests and diseases affecting plants using various control components such as B. biological control, mechanical, technical culture, biological (use of natural enemies), and the use of pesticides.
Coffee fruit powder pest (Stephanoderes hamper) attacks fruit storage and also the garden. Brown and black branch borers attack twigs and branches. Head lice (Pseudococcus citri) attack flower buds, young fruit, twigs, and young leaves.
The disease that commonly afflicts coffee plants is leaf rust caused by Hemileia vastatrix. Cup fungus disease is caused by Corticium Salmonicolor. Salsify disease caused by Rosellina bunodes and R. arcuata. Marked with yellow leaves, withered, drooping, and falling. Brown root disease is caused by Fomes lamaoensis or Phellinus lamaoensis. Leaf spot disease by Cercospora cafeicola and deadly disease on branches causes Rhizoctonia.
Arabica coffee begins to bear fruit at the age of 2-4 years. Pick ripe, dark-colored, red fruits to produce quality coffee. When harvesting (picking), be careful not to damage any part of the tree/branches/twigs so that this does not cause stress and hinder further development.