The coffee plant (Coffea sp.) is a tree-like species of plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family and the Cofeea genus. Coffee plants grow upright, and branched and can reach 12 meters in height if allowed to grow. The leaves are oval with slightly pointed ends. The leaves of the plant are opposite on stems, branches, and twigs. Many types of coffee are currently in circulation, but not every coffee can give the lover pleasure.
Robusta coffee is currently the most popular coffee drinker worldwide. The type of Robusta coffee plant is the easiest for us to cultivate, both in the garden, on plantations, and even in pots. Because this plant does not require several ingredients, which is quite difficult for farmers.
The land where Robusta coffee is grown naturally determines the quality of the coffee. Of course, the more precisely the country is selected, the more satisfactory the final results will be. This is something that needs to be considered for those looking to start growing Robusta coffee. The best soil pH is between 4 and 6, which can be adjusted by applying organic fertilizer to adjust the quality of the soil suitable for growing Robusta coffee. We recommend providing shade trees in areas where Robusta coffee is grown.
Can be a Sengon tree that grows faster. In addition, the leaves of the shade tree can also be used as a natural fertilizer, which can provide good nutrients for the needs of the Robusta coffee plant. Shade plants are also useful for adjusting the temperature around Robusta coffee plants. Since the right temperature also allows Robusta coffee plants to grow well, the temperature ranges from 23-35 cc. Robusta coffee is grown in lowland areas with a rain capacity of 2,500mm per year.
Tropical and humid areas are also good for growing Robusta coffee. In addition, the success of growing Robusta coffee will be affected by the seed we are going to use. The good and high-quality seeds will certainly bear plenty of fruit. Conversely, if poor seeds are selected, the results obtained will be less than satisfactory.
We can run our nurseries or we can buy seeds from producers whose quality has been proven to be better. Many types of Robusta coffee seeds can be used as a reference, namely clone Bp 308, which is a superior Robusta coffee seed and is more resistant to various diseases. This type of seed is also easier to adapt to a new environment, even if we plant it in nutrient-poor soil. These seeds can survive perfectly. The Bp 42 clone is a variety of Robusta coffee seeds with a higher level of productivity.
Some farmers who have managed to cultivate clones of Bp 42 seeds per hectare of coffee can produce up to 1,300 kg/year. Clone Sa 436 is the highest quality Robusta coffee seed as it can produce up to 3,000 kg/year on one hectare. Aside from the advantage that the size and shape of the coffee produced are not uniform, some are small and some are large and not evenly distributed even in a tree.
Robusta coffee can be grown in several ways, one of which is sowing from seeds, cuttings, and grafts. However, the best and fastest results are obtained when producing Robusta coffee seedlings by grafting. In addition to better seed yields, it bears fruit faster compared to the time- and energy-consuming cultivation method. After preparing all the necessary materials like land, high-quality coffee seeds, and other materials that may be needed like fertilizer. Then the cultivation of Robusta coffee can take place.
If the seeds used are from seedlings that come from polybags, before planting, remove the plastic wrap/polybag, and cut off the petioles, if there are seeds that have too many petioles, just leave 2-3 leaves around to facilitate evaporation and seeds fast-growing, especially at the roots. Make a hole we adjusted to the size of the poly bag, e.g. B. 1m x 1m for each hole. Before planting the seeds, do not forget to spray the hole with compost for about 2 months, just leave the hole open.
1 month before we plant the seeds. We spray the dug hole with sulfur and lime with a dose of 150 grams/hole for each sulfur and dolomite lime, then 1/2 month before planting Robusta coffee seeds we put compost fertilizer in the dug hole that we will use and then leave it alone until the seeds are ready for planting.
After planting Robusta coffee, the next step is plant care. There are a few things to consider when caring for the plant, including pruning the branches of the Robusta coffee plant to prevent the plant from becoming too tall so that the care process is easier and growth and development are more optimal to create productive branches so that the fruit is more plentiful and sustainable.
facilitate the passage of light and facilitate the process of air circulation in the canopy, and facilitate the process of monitoring, preventing, and controlling pest and disease infestations, strengthening plant growth and branching. It should also be considered when fertilizing coffee plants based on the age of the coffee plant.