invisible hit counter Cultivation of sweet potatoes - 10 Downing Nyc

Sweet potato plants can grow well in areas suitable for growth and achieve optimal production. Sweet potatoes do well in a location with the following conditions:

(a). Sweet potato plants need hot and humid air. The most ideal areas for growing sweet potatoes are areas with a temperature of 21-27 °C;

(b). Areas with 11-12 hours of sunlight/day are the preferred areas. Optimal growth and production for sweet potato cultivation are achieved during the dry (drought) season. On dry soil (bog), the good planting time for sweet potato plants is during the rainy season, while on rice soil, the good planting time is after the rice plants are harvested;

(c). Sweet potato plants can be planted in areas with rainfall of 500-5000 mm/year, optimally between 750-1500 mm/year.

 

Almost all agricultural land is suitable for growing sweet potatoes. The best soil type is loamy sandy, loose, rich in organic matter, aerated, and well-drained. Planting sweet potatoes in dry and cracked soil often results in sweet potatoes being susceptible to borer pests (Cylas sp.).

On the other hand, if it is planted in slightly muddy or poorly drained soil, it may result in stunted sweet potato plant growth, yam blight, high fiber content, and tuber shape. Soil acidity (pH) is 5.5-7.5. When young, it needs sufficient soil moisture, suitable for planting in dry fields or paddy fields, especially during the dry season. When young, the plant needs moist soil. Therefore, sufficient water must be available for planting in the dry season.

 

Sweet potato plants need hot and humid air. In Indonesia, which has a tropical climate, sweet potato plants can be planted in the lowlands up to an altitude of 500 m above sea level. In the highlands, at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level, sweet potatoes can still grow well, but the harvest time is long and the yield is low.

The propagation technique of sweet potato plants that is commonly practiced is stem cuttings or scion cuttings. Plant material (seeds) in the form of scion cuttings or stem cuttings must meet the following requirements:

(a). Seedlings are from superior cultivars or clones;

(b). plant material aged 2 months or more;

(c). The growth of the cuttings to be taken is healthy, normal, and not very fertile;

(d). The length of stem cuttings or scion cuttings is between 20-25 cm, the segments are dense, and the books are not rooted;

(e). Have a storage time in the shade for 1-7 days.

 

Plant material (cuttings) can come from production facilities and specially seeded sweet potato shoots or through the budding process. The propagation of plants by cuttings or scion cuttings tends to continually reduce yields in subsequent generations. Therefore, after 3-5 generations of propagation by planting or sprouting tubers for propagating material must be renewed.

 

Land preparation for sweet potatoes should be done when the soil is not too wet or too dry so that the structure does not become damaged, sticky or hard.

 

Planting sweet potatoes can be done individually (monoculture) and in intercropping with peanuts. If you choose the monoculture system

(1.) Using a hoe, make 10cm deep strips lengthwise along the top of the hill or make holes with a tugal, the distance between the holes is 25-30cm;

(2.) Put a line or a single hole 7-10 cm left and right of the planting hole for fertilizer;

(3.) Plant the sweet potato seeds in the hole or walk until the stalk (cuttings) is 1/2-2/3 parts shallowly immersed in the soil, then compact the soil near the base of the cuttings (seedlings);

(4.) Add base fertilizer in the form of 1/3 part Urea plus all parts TSP plus 1/3 part KCl from the recommended dose into the hole or arrangement and then cover with a thin layer of soil. The recommended fertilizer dose is 45-90 kg N/ha (100-200 kg urea/ha) plus 25 kg P2O5/ha (50 kg TSP/ha) plus 50 kg K2O/ha (100 kg KCl/ha). At the time of planting, 34-67 kg of urea plus 50 kg of TSP plus 34 kg of KCl were applied per hectare. Sweet potato plants respond very well to the application of N (Urea) and K (KCl) fertilizers.

 

If you choose the intercropping system, the purpose of the intercropping system is to increase production and income per unit area. The plant species suitable for intercropping with sweet potatoes are peanuts. The planting method for the mixed crop system is the same as for the monoculture system, except that peanuts are planted between rows of sweet potato plants or on the sides of the hills.

 

Embroidering involves replacing dead or abnormal seedlings with new seeds. Embroidery should be done in the morning or evening when the sun is not too hot and the air temperature is not too hot. Seeds (cuttings) for embroidery, previously prepared or planted in the shade.

 

In a cultivation system without straw mulch, the sweet potato planting area is usually easily overgrown with weeds. Weeds are competitors to sweet potato plants, especially when it comes to meeting their needs for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Therefore, weeds must be weeded immediately. Along with weeding, heaping up is carried out, namely loosening the soil of the hills, then piling them up on top of the hills.

 

Although sweet potato plants are drought tolerant, the initial stages of growth require the availability of adequate groundwater. After planting, the soil or mound where sweet potatoes are planted needs to be watered for 15-30 minutes until the soil is moist enough, then the water is drained during disposal.

Subsequent watering is still required continuously until the sweet potato plants are 1-2 months old. In the period of formation and development of sweet potatoes, which is 2-3 weeks before harvest, watering is reduced or stopped.

 

Determining when to harvest the sweet potato is based on the age of the plant. Types of cultivars of short-lived sweet potatoes (early) are harvested at 3-3.5 months of age, while long-lived cultivars (deep) are harvested at 4.5-5 months of age.

 

The ideal sweet potato harvest begins at 3 months of age, with a delay of at least 4 months. A harvest older than 4 months, in addition to the high risk of pest infestation, will not increase the yield of sweet potatoes. The procedure for harvesting sweet potatoes is carried out in the following stages:

(a). Determine the sweet potato crop ready for harvest.

(b). Cut (prune) the sweet potato stalks with a machete or sickle, then the stalks are removed during a gathering outside the plot.

(c). Dig the mounds with a hoe until the potatoes are exposed.

(d). Pick up and collect sweet potatoes at a collection point.

(e). Clean the sweet potato of any soil or dirt and roots still clinging to it.

(f). Carry out the selection and sorting of yams based on the size of large and small potatoes separately, and the color of the skin of yams is uniform. Separate whole sweet potatoes from sweet potatoes that are injured or infested with pests or diseases.

(g). Put it in a jute container or sack and then transport it to the harvest results (collection results).

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