Currently, the recommended plant propagation is vegetative propagation, such as grafting, grafting, and grafting. this is inseparable from the quality that produces the future seed that has the same qualities as the parent. Seeds are planted only as a population form in cultivar improvement (breeding) and as the main stem in vegetative propagation.
In vegetative propagation techniques, we know several techniques such as shoots, cuttings, and grafts. Besides these three techniques in vegetative propagation, several plant breeding techniques are no less cool. Then what are the types of vegetative propagation and what are the pros and cons of each technique? the following is the explanation:
The following is a technique of 5 vegetative propagation in fruit plants to produce the highest quality seeds
Cuttings are plant propagation by planting or growing a part of the plant. Parts that can be grown for plant propagation include stems, roots, and leaves. Cuttings are preferred by farmers because few materials are used in their production and a large number of seeds can be obtained. Plants produced in cuttings usually show similarities in age, size, and disease resistance. In addition, we can also source the perfect plant in a relatively short amount of time.
The cutting technique is widely used because the implementation procedure is very simple and does not require complicated techniques, so it can be done by anyone. The types of plants that can be cut are all dicots since dicots have cambium. However, the success of this propagation technique depends on how the pruning is done. Cuttings can be divided into stem cuttings such as kale, brotowali, and cassava. Root cuttings like banyan trees and leaf cuttings like coconut duck plants.
Advantages of the cutting technique:
- No seasonal/time restrictions
- New people are the same age as their parents so they bear fruit quickly
- The new individual has the same characteristics as the parent
- Can reproduce continuously
Disadvantages of the cutting technique:
- More complicated than Seeds
- Must have a mother tree
- More expensive than seeds
- Roots are weaker than seeds
Grafting is a type of plant propagation by growing roots before the stem is cut and planted. This method is intended to minimize the failure rate in plant propagation. This method is chosen to produce new plants that have the same characteristics as their parents. These properties such as resistance to pests and diseases, fruit flavor, and floral beauty. This is because the results of such a transplant can be almost 100% similar to the parents, but if the results differ from the parents, it is usually caused by a gene mutation.
This propagation method has a fairly high failure rate. This failure can be identified by the dry or dead part of the plant over the cut/wound. To avoid such incidents, it is necessary to pay attention to how to graft correctly and carefully. This method can be used on shrubs, mango trees, various types of citrus, various types of guava, pomegranates, and star fruit.
Advantages of the grafting technique:
- The species of the new plant is the same as that of the parent plant
- Plants from grafted seed can bear fruit in a relatively short time (± 4 years
- The propagation period is relatively short (1-3 months)
Disadvantages of grafting techniques:
- Cannot be done on a large scale
- Grafted seedlings are difficult to live in areas with low groundwater because their roots are short
- No taproot
Grafting is a type of plant propagation technique that combines two similar plants. There are two types of grafting, namely by gluing and bonding. Plug grafting involves attaching shoots to the rootstock or main stem, while grafting involves attaching two tree trunks. This grafting usually uses rootstocks and shoots of one species or one variety. Grafting plants of one variety or species can be done to minimize damage.
Propagation by grafting has advantages over cuttings and grafting. The results of the transplant are of better quality than the parents. This is because the grafting is done on plants that have good roots and are disease resistant, for example, and are combined with plants that have a delicious fruit flavor but have poor roots.
Advantages of the grafting technique:
- Plants with high productivity can be obtained by grafting.
- Even plant growth
- The seed preparation is relatively short
Weaknesses of the refinement technique:
- Sometimes a plant resulting from grafting is not normal because there is no harmony between the rootstock and the scion (Entries).
- Experts must be consulted for this transplant.
- If one of the conditions in the grafting activity is not met, it may fail or the buds will not grow very large.
Connection techniques/finishing techniques
Joining is a plant propagation technique in which the rootstock and shoot of two similar plants are combined to achieve a join where that combination continues to grow to form new plants. Unlike the grafting technique, which uses only one bud as a candidate for the top stem, this grafting technique uses the entire shoot of the plant, 7.5-10 cm long.
The purpose of this transplant technique is to combine two superior characteristics of different individuals. as well as to support plants, plant species with strong roots are required. Meanwhile, to produce fruits or leaves or flowers needed by plants with high productivity. The resulting plants have strong roots and high productivity. Plants that can be joined are cambium plants as long as they belong to one cultivar or one species. Examples of plants are mango, guava, apple, etc.
Advantages of the connection technology:
- Preserves clonal traits not possessed by other vegetative propagation.
- Can become a strong plant as the rootstock is resistant to adverse soil conditions.
- Improve the grown plant species so that the unwanted species are converted into the desired species.
- Can accelerate the fruiting of plants.
Disadvantages of the connection techniques:
- With forest plants, a large tree can break easily in strong winds
- Low success rate when there is no match between scion and pad
Tissue Culture Techniques
Tissue culture is a plant propagation technique in which plant microtissues grown in vitro are propagated into perfect plants in unlimited quantities. This process possesses the fundamental properties of cell totipotency, namely the ability to self-divide under appropriate environmental conditions.
Tissue culture techniques have been used to support large-scale plant production through micropropagation or clonal propagation of various types of plants. Plant tissue in small amounts can produce hundreds or thousands of plants continuously.
This technique has been used on an industrial scale in different countries to grow various types of plants such as ornamental plants (orchids, cut flowers, etc.), fruit trees (such as bananas), industrial and forest plants (coffee, teak, etc.). . By using the tissue culture method, millions of plants with the same genetic characteristics can be obtained from just one bud.
Advantages of tissue culture techniques:
- Seed procurement is independent of the season
- Seedling production can be produced in large quantities in a relatively short period
- The seeds produced are disease free as long as they are taken from organs that are also disease free
- Cheaper and easier to transport
- The rearing process is free from pests, diseases, and other environmental disturbances
Weaknesses of tissue culture techniques:
- Tissue culture is expensive because it has to be done in a laboratory and uses chemicals
- Tissue Culture Requires special skills
- Tissue culture Requires acclimatization to the external environment as the cultivated plants are usually small, aseptic, and used to a place with high humidity
Budding is a vegetative propagation technique performed naturally on certain plants to propagate through seedlings or shoots. This reproductive process cannot be fully controlled by humans. The shoots to be removed later grow by themselves from old plants or trees. After the shoots grow large, they can be moved to other places to avoid overcrowding the area. An example of a plant that can have shot is a banana.