invisible hit counter Efforts to maximize oil palm production - 10 Downing Nyc

Oil palm is a species of plant belonging to the genus Elaeis and the order Arecaceae. This plant is used in commercial agriculture to produce palm oil. This genus has two member species. The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is the most widely grown oil palm species in the world, particularly in Indonesia, and the world’s most important source of palm oil. The oil palm Elaeis oleifera is native to tropical South and Central America and is used locally for oil extraction.

 

Palm oil is an industrial crop as a raw material to produce cooking oil, industrial oil, and fuel. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil. In Indonesia, it is common in Aceh, the east coast of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi. There are several species of oil palm namely E. guineensis Jacq., E. oleifera, and E. odora. Oil palm cultivars or types are classified based on two characteristics, endocarp thickness, and fruit color.

Based on the thickness of the endocarp, the oil palm is classified into three varieties namely Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera while the oil palm is classified into three varieties according to the color of the fruit namely Nigrescens, Virescens, and Albescens. In general, the oil palm consists of several parts, namely roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit. The part of palm oil that is processed into oil is the fruit.

 

Oil palm cultivation is one of the most promising and viral businesses and is in high demand by the Indonesian people. Because palm oil is the main raw material of the plantation sector in Indonesia, which has a high export value in the form of CPO (crude palm oil) and PKO (palm kernel oil). In addition, oil palm plantations are also one of Indonesia’s most important commodities, making the largest contribution to the country’s foreign exchange.

 

The ideal oil palm plant is not only evident from its fertile vegetation, but we must also pay attention to the quality and productivity of the plant to be able to grow optimally and productively as described above. We must pay attention to this because if we do not respect the conditions for the correct cultivation of this plant, we will certainly not achieve maximum results.

 

The following factors can maximize growth and boost oil palm production, namely:

  1. Use of superior seeds

The development of the oil palm industry requires supporting the availability of plant material in sufficient quantities with guaranteed quality. The quality of the oil palm seeds significantly influences the yield and quality of the oil palm bundles. Therefore, the use of high-quality seeds is an important prerequisite for the development of oil palm cultivation. The availability of high-quality oil palm planting material is one of the factors supporting the successful development of the oil palm industry in Indonesia. Even if it accounts for only 7% of production costs, using high-quality oil palm planting material greatly increases productivity.

  1. Cultivation Techniques

Growing oil palm crops according to GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) standards has a major impact on the maximum yield achieved. Some points to consider when growing oil palm are: land management, crop care, harvest, and post-harvest.

 

  1. Long sunshine

Effective irradiation is defined as the total number of hours of irradiation received during periods of sufficient groundwater moisture plus during periods of water stress, minus the duration of groundwater stress. A good duration of sun exposure for palm oil is 5-7 hours per day.

 

  1. Temperature

Temperature is an important factor in oil palm growth and yield. The average annual temperature in oil palm growing areas, which produce many grapes, is between 25 and 27 °C. Oil palm can grow in temperatures from 18oC to 32oC. Beyond this temperature, oil palm growth is suboptimal and tends to be slow.

 

  1. Precipitation and Humidity

Oil palm plants can grow well in the tropics or the hot and humid lowlands. The optimal amount of rainfall for oil palm cultivation is 2,500-3,000 mm per year, falling evenly throughout the year. The ideal planting area for oil palm cultivation is the lowlands, which are between 200-400 meters above sea level. At an altitude of more than 500 meters above sea level, the growth of this oil palm is hampered due to low temperatures and low production.

 

  1. Soil type

The soil types that are good for planting oil palm are latosol soil, red-yellow podsol soil, gray hydromorphic, alluvial soil, and organosol/thin peat. The suitability of soil for oil palm cultivation is determined by two things, namely the physical and chemical properties of the soil.

 

  1. Soil chemical properties

Oil palm plants can grow well in soils with a pH of 4.0-6.5 and the optimal pH is between 5.0-5.5. Soils with low pH are usually found in tidal areas, especially peat soils. Organosol soil or peat contains a layer consisting of a mineral layer with a layer of organic matter that has not been further enriched and has a low pH.

 

  1. Soil physical properties

Oil palm growth is good on flat or slightly sloping soil, deep solum and good drainage, loose fertile soil, moderate permeability, and the top layer not too close to the soil surface. A growth-friendly soil must also be able to absorb sufficient water and naturally high nutrients as well as additional nutrients. Unsuitable soils are sandy beach soil and thick peat soil. It is relatively difficult to define sharp boundaries as to the suitability of soil physical properties between soil types.

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