invisible hit counter Formal education in Indonesia - 10 Downing Nyc

Based on Law No. 20 of 2003, national education in Indonesia is classified into three types namely formal, non-formal and informal education. Thus, formal education is legally one type of education available in Indonesia. But what is formal education? How does it differ from non-formal and informal education? Do these types of education serve different purposes? Below are descriptions that can answer common questions about formal education.


Definition of formal education

Formal education is education organized through a systematic, structured, multi-level and tiered educational pathway consisting of basic, secondary, and higher education. Formal education is education that takes place in schools, colleges, or other educational institutions.


In general, formal educational institutions are educational institutions that are seen as the most supportive of all aspects of improving students’ knowledge, skills, and competencies. This is because formal education is the most modern, effective, and efficient way of education to advance students in general academic goals or needs.


In terms of formalities or various document requirements accepted in all institutions, formal education has become the most important thing to pay attention to. How not, school and college diplomas are universal documents that are accepted as proof that a person has attained a certain level of education in all work environments as well as other levels of higher education both in Indonesia and around the world.


In addition, schools or universities are institutions with various best quality standards in the implementation of formal education, since the implementation of formal education must be carried out through well-organized organizations and plans in carrying out learning activities. This includes developing curricula, hiring competent staff, and providing adequate learning facilities. This quality is also directly monitored by the government with a requirement to obtain good accreditation.


Formal education in Indonesia is mainly carried out by the government. Although educational institutions are set up by private foundations, the state still participates to a certain extent. Even in the case of private foundations, which cover almost the entire implementation of their training, the state at least will continue to be involved in monitoring quality standards.


Purpose of formal education

In general, the purpose of formal education is to develop the potential of students to become people of faith and devotion to God, who is One, Noble in Character, Healthy, Knowledgeable, Able, Creative, Independent, and a democratic person becomes a responsible citizen. In the National Education System Act, we also find the more conical goals of formal education, namely the following.


Education is aimed at helping families to educate and teach, improve and deepen and expand the behavior of children born from the family, and support the development of the talents that exist in students.


Formal education aims to develop students’ personalities through the curriculum in a targeted manner. This is to ensure that students get along well with teachers, staff, and friends, as well as the surrounding community, that students can learn to follow rules and discipline, and that prepare students to be able to enter the community by applicable norms and by existing regulations.


Formal level of education

In RI Law No. 20 of 2003, the level of education is a level of education determined based on the student’s developmental level, goals to be achieved, and skills developed. According to RI Law No. 20 of 2003, there are three levels of formal education, namely elementary education, secondary education, and higher education, which are explained in the following description.


Basic training

Basic education is education that serves to provide the basic services necessary for life in society in the form of the development of basic attitudes, knowledge, and skills. This basic level of education is intended to prepare students to able to meet the requirements for further secondary education. Basic education according to the Republic of Indonesia Law No. 20 of 2003, which includes kindergarten and elementary school/equivalent.


For the record, Kindergarten is not a school, but a fun place for Kindergarten-aged children. In Indonesia, a kindergarten is a form of early childhood education unit in formal education for children aged four to six years. In addition, elementary school is the next level of kindergarten and is conducted for approximately six years of the learning process from grade 1 to grade 6.



Middle education

Secondary education is education designed to expand and continue basic education, as well as to prepare students to become members of the community in which a person in secondary education was able to develop reciprocal relationships with the community, and cultural and natural build environment around them.


At the secondary level, students are expected to be able to develop their skills in preparation for continuing their education in higher education. In Law No. RI. 20 from 2003, secondary education consists of junior high school and senior high school.


Higher education

Higher education is a continuation of secondary education. In terms of objectives, higher education prepares students to become members of the community who have academic or professional skills and are capable of developing or creating science and technology. Higher education is education organized by universities, colleges, institutes, and other equal educational institutions.

In Law No. 20 of 2003 of the Republic of Indonesia on the National Education System, Articles 19 and 20, it is emphasized that higher education is:


  • Higher education is a post-secondary level of education that includes diploma, bachelor’s, master’s, specialist, and doctoral training programs organized by universities.
  • Higher education takes place in an open system.
  • Universities can take the form of academics, colleges, high schools, institutes, and universities.
  • Universities must provide education, research, and community service.
  • Universities may organize academic, professional, and/or professional programs.


Type of educational program

Besides the level or level of education, formal education can also be subdivided by the type of educational program. According to the National Education Law No. 20 of 2003 Article 1 Paragraph 9, types of education are groups based on the specificity of the educational goals of an educational unit. The educational pathways included in the National Education Law No. 20 of 2003 are as follows.


General knowledge

General education is education that gives priority to expanding students’ knowledge and skills, with specialization being realized in the last stages of the educational period. General education serves as a general reference for other forms of education.


Vocational training

Vocational education is an education that prepares students to work in specific career fields such as engineering, gastronomy and fashion, hospitality, trades, office administration, and others.


Special education

Extraordinary education is special education organized for students with physical and/or mental disabilities. What belongs to special education is the SDLB (Extraordinary Primary School) for the secondary level, each of which has a special program, namely programs for the blind, deaf, physically handicapped, and mentally retarded children. The SGPLB (School for Special Education Teachers), which is equivalent to Diplom III, is intended for the placement of teachers.


Official training

Official training is special training organized to improve the ability to perform official duties for prospective employees or prospective employees of a government department or a government agency outside the ministry.


Official education consists of secondary education and higher education. This includes secondary education such as the SPK (School of Health Nurses) and higher education such as the APDN (Academy of Domestic Government).


Religious instruction

Religious education is special education that prepares students to hold roles that require mastery of specialized knowledge of religious doctrines. Religious education can consist of basic education, secondary education, and higher education.



Scroll Bottom for Code