Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a kind of spice whose rhizome is often used for cooking spices and traditional medicine because it has a spicy and warm taste in the body. Ginger is consumed to maintain immunity or endurance, which can protect the body from disease.
Ginger plants will grow and produce anywhere, but for maximum production in areas with rainfall of 2,500-4,000 mm/year and soil pH between 6.8 – 7.4.
Ginger plants in the garden can be planted directly in the ground or polybags. Ginger plants in polybags can be arranged with tiers up to accommodate many plants so that in a narrow yard (area under 120 square meters), the yield of the unit area can be more than doubled. Planting ginger plants directly into the ground includes the following activities:
Determine the type of ginger to plant, Emprit Ginger, Elephant Ginger, or Red Ginger. The method for propagating the three types of ginger is the same, namely rhizome cuttings that are at least 10 months old, of one origin, healthy, and not mixed with other types.
The rhizomes that can be used as seeds are in the second and third segments and have 2-3 good buds weighing about 25-60 grams for Elephant Ginger, about 20-40 grams for Emprit and Red Ginger.
Seeds selected for planting are first sown to form small shoots by spreading rhizomes on straw or thin reeds, in storage sheds, or shady places. If germination is indoors, you can use a bamboo or wooden base and water every day depending on how the rhizome needs to maintain moisture.
Seeds ready to be planted, namely rhizomes, have a shot of about 1-2 cm. Before planting, first, select good rhizome shoots and cut them according to size. After cutting, do an antibiotic soak as recommended to avoid bacterial infection, then air dry.
The soil to be planted with ginger is cleaned of plastic dirt, stones, roots of former annual plants, and others. Then it is processed to get loose soil, which has good drainage and air aeration. The purpose of loosening the soil is to allow the ginger rhizomes to grow freely.
Clay soil, if not handled properly, will result in the ginger rhizomes being depressed and not thriving, while gravel soil will result in the rhizomes being scratched, so good crop yields will not be related. . Good drainage is also needed by ginger plants to prevent diseases such as wilting caused by standing water. Meanwhile, good aeration provides space for the roots to absorb nutrients and water and can reduce the formation of inorganic compounds that are toxic in the soil.
So cultivate the soil with a hoe to a depth of about 30 cm, and then make beds 60-120 cm wide, 25-30 cm high with a distance between the beds of about 30 cm. For planting holes, the depth is between 5 to 7 cm with spacing for elephant ginger (old crop; 80 cm x 40 cm/60 cm x 40 cm, young crop; 40 cm x 30 cm), emprit and red ginger 60 cm spacing x 40 cm .
Ginger can be planted year-round when water is always available, but in areas that only rely on rainwater, planted at the start of the rainy season. Seeds are ready and planted in holes prepared according to the species, Emprit Ginger, Elephant Ginger, or Red Ginger.
After planting, it is necessary to provide a cover in the form of reeds or straw to protect the newly formed shoots from the hot sun. In addition, the use of straw/alang can improve soil surface conditions and reduce erosion from water flow.
Embroidery must be carried out after the plants are 1-1.5 months old, namely removing and replacing plants that are dying or have poor growth with spare seeds prepared in advance. This is to keep plants growing evenly so they can be harvested at the same time.
It should be of concern if the plant dies due to a bacterial wilt disease not to replace it with new seeds but to give lime to the former plants to avoid transmission to plants that are nearby.
Fertilizing ginger plants must also be done while planting in the garden, to increase nutrients, improve soil texture, and improve aeration for maximum productivity. Fertilization is done before and after planting with different types and dosages of fertilizers.
Fertilizing Emprit ginger plants is the same as for red ginger, namely: 2-4 weeks before planting, the soil receives a mature fertilizer of 200-300 kg per 100 m2.
At the time of sowing, the seeds were given SP-36 fertilizer up to 2-3 kg per 100 m2, and KCL up to 2-3 kg per 100 m2. After a month, the plants received 1-1.3 kg of urea fertilizer per 100 m2, then after 2 months and 3 months, the urea fertilizer was repeated at the same dose. When fertilizing elephant ginger as follows: 2-4 weeks before planting, 200-400 kg of mature manure per 100 m2 is added to the soil.
At the time of sowing, the seeds received SP-36 fertilizers up to 3-4 kg per 100 m2, and KCL up to 3-4 kg per 100 m2. After a month, the plants received 1.3-2 kg of urea fertilizer per 100 m2, then at the age of 2 months and 3 months, the urea fertilizer was repeated with the same dose.
Weeding plants to remove weeds should also be done periodically every 2-4 weeks, then every 4-6 weeks depending on the degree of weed growth. Weeds allowed to grow around ginger plants up to 6 months of age reduce yields by up to 60%.
Weeding performed when the plant is more than 4 months old must be done carefully so as not to damage the roots and injure the ginger rhizome, which can be an entry point for disease. Weeding can be done by weeding or with herbicides.
Hparding did after the ginger seedlings have formed 4-5 rhizomes. Also, it prevents the rhizome from being directly exposed to the sun while loosening the soil. On loamy soils and in areas with a lot of rainfall, ginger rhizomes exposed to sunlight turn green and hard, so the quality of the rhizomes decreases. Bumping can be done as often as possible before fertilization.