invisible hit counter Mango Growing Techniques - 10 Downing Nyc

Mango trees are large, reaching 40m or more in height, although most domesticated mangoes are only 10m or less tall. The mango stalk is erect, somewhat heavily branched with dense leaves forming a beautiful crown in the shape of an oval or oblong dome up to 10 m in diameter. The bark is thick and leathery with many small crevices and scales from petioles. Old pepagan (bark) color is usually grey-brown, dark gray to almost black.

The mango has a branching taproot, very long, up to 6 m. The roots of the branches become fewer and fewer, at most the roots of the branches are at a depth of about 30–60 cm.

Single leaf, with scattered layer, without support leaf. The length of the petiole varies from 1.25 to 12.5 cm, the base is enlarged, and there is a groove on the top. The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is usually 3/8, but the closer to the top, the closer they are, making it look like a circle (rosette).

Leaf blades variable, but mostly oblong to lanceolate, 2–10 × 8–40 cm, slightly coriaceous, glossy dark green, tapering at the base with wavy margins and tapering tips, with 12–30 secondary veins.

Types of mango fruit

1. Mango Duren

The name durian on this mango is due to the fruit’s durian-like aroma. This mango is found in the Cukurgondang mango collection garden, Pasuruan, East Java. The fruit is round. The skin of the fruit is thin and green when young, then turns reddish yellow when the fruit is ripe.

The advantage of this mango lies in its thick, chewy flesh and fresh-sweet taste because it contains quite a lot of water. The flesh is yellow-orange and fibrous. The size of the fruit is medium, the length is between 8 – 9 cm and the average weight is 300 g/fruit. Production is high.

2. Mango arumanis

This mango is one of the superior varieties released by the Minister of Agriculture from the Probolinggo area of ​​East Java. The fruit is elongated and slightly beaked, and the tip is tapered. The base of the fruit is purple-red while the other parts are bluish-green. The skin is not very thick, with whitish-spotted glands and covered with a waxy coating.

The flesh is thick, yellow, soft, not fibrous, and does not contain much water. The taste is sweet and fresh, but it can sometimes taste sour in the end. The seeds are small, flat-oval and between 13-14 cm long. The length of the fruit can reach 15 cm with an average weight of 450 g per fruit. Its productivity is quite high, it can reach 54 kg/tree.

Growing conditions

Mango plants are lowland plants. This plant can grow and develop well in areas with an altitude between 0-300 m above sea level. However, this plant can still grow up to an altitude of 1,300 m above sea level. Areas with rainfall between 750-2250mm per year and temperatures of 24-27°C are good growing areas for this fruit plant. Its preferred soil type is loose, well-drained soil with a pH between 5.5 and 6 and a groundwater depth of 50 to 150 cm.

Cultivation guidelines

1. Plant propagation

Generally, mango plants are propagated by grafting, although this can also be done by grafting and grafting. Honey mango seedlings, cengkir (Indramayu), and bapang are used as rootstocks.

The use of seedlings from seeds is not allowed, except for rootstocks. Incompatible (incompatible) rootstock harms the growth and fertilization (fruit formation, fruit shape, and taste of the pulp) of the scion. Seedling (seedlings and grafting) is usually done right in the garden. Then it was transferred to poly bags after the sprouts were about 20 cm high.

2. crop production

Seedlings are planted in 60 cm x 60 cm x 50 cm planting holes at a distance of 8-12 m.
Each hole receives dung that was as much as 1-2 blek kerosene consumed or 20 kg.
Grafting seedlings are planted in the field after reaching a height of more than 75 cm.

3. Fertilization

A mixture of 200 kg urea, 500 kg TSP (667 kg SP-36), and 150 kg KCl per hectare or 200 g urea, 500 g TSP, and 150 g KCl per plant is given as artificial fertilizer. Fertilization occurs four times, three months apart. The dose is increased according to the age of the plant.

4. Trimming

After reaching a height of 1 m, the seedlings are pruned at the edge of the growth plane so that they can be multi-branched. This branch cares for 2-3 shoots per branch. Pruning is repeated after the new branch has reached a length of 1 m, and so on until an arrangement of 1-3-9 branches is achieved.

5. Maintenance, pest, and disease control

pest

Pests of concern are the stem borer (Cryptorrhynchus sp) and the leafhopper beetle (Idiocerus niueosparsus). The sucking pest Idiocerus is very harmful to mango flowers until they fall off. The number of female flowers is low when fertilized by weak pollen. Insect infestation (wereng) causes low mango production. This pest can be controlled with a spray of the systemic insecticide Tamaron 0.2%. It is recommended that insecticides be administered by infusion to avoid adverse effects on pollinating beetles.

diseases

Diseases that are particularly common in humid climates are Blendok disease (lh’plodia sp.), shoot death (Gloeosporium sp.), and post-harvest disease (Botryodiplodia sp.), which causes mangoes to rot quickly at the base. However, this disease can also affect the connecting stems of mango seedlings when the plant’s environmental conditions are damp and cold. Diplodia attacks, which are very damaging to the stalk, can be overcome by applying a 0.3% benlat solution or 20-50% lysol to the previously cleaned wound.

6. Harvest and post-harvest

Mangoes are only harvested when they are really old. The feature is that the base of the fruit is swollen flat, and the color begins to turn yellow.

When picking unripe fruit, the taste becomes slightly acidic and chelated (lower quality). The age of fruit is harvested at approximately 4-5 months (110-150 days) after the flower blooms (anthesis). Picking must be careful, should not fall, and the juice should not touch the mango. In general, mango plants flower in July-August. Ripe fruits can be harvested from September to December. The fruit must be cleaned of lice, soot, and adhering juice.

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