invisible hit counter Potato growing technique - 10 Downing Nyc
Potato growing technique

The potato is a plant of the Solanaceae family that has edible tuberous roots. The word potato is also commonly used to refer to this root. Potatoes are a staple food in Europe, although they originally come from South America. Potato plants were first brought to Europe and grown in the 16th century. The potato is a dicotyledonous plant that is annual and has the shape of a shrub/herb. The above-ground stems are colored green, reddish, or dark purple.

However, the color of this stem is also affected by the age of the plant and environmental conditions. With better or drier soil fertility, the color of the stems of older plants is usually more noticeable. The bottom of the trunk can be woody. While the stems of young plants are not woody, they are not overly strong and collapse easily.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an annual vegetable plant, short-lived and in the form of a shrub/shrub. Potatoes are annual crops because they only produce once and then die. The age of the potato plants is between 90-180 days. In the plant world, potatoes are classified as follows:

Division: spermatophytes
Subdivision: angiosperms
Class: Dicotiledonea
Family: Nightshade family
Genus: nightshade
Species: Solanun tuberosum

Other wild species of this plant are also known, including Solanum andigenum L, Solanum anglgenum L, Solanum demissum L, and others. The potato varieties that are widespread in Indonesia are the yellow potatoes of the Granola, Atlantis, Cipanas, and Segunung varieties.

Potatoes are very popular with almost everyone. Even in some areas, some make it a staple. In addition, potatoes also contain many B vitamins, vitamin C, and some vitamin A. As an important supplier of carbohydrates, potatoes are still considered a luxury vegetable in Indonesia.

Growing conditions

Climate

Areas with an average rainfall of 1500 mm/year are very suitable for growing potatoes. Areas that are often exposed to strong winds are not suitable for growing potatoes. The irradiation period required for photosynthetic activities by potato plants is about 9-10 hours/day. The duration of irradiation also influences the time and duration of tuber development. The optimal temperature for growth is 18-210 °C. Tuber growth is inhibited when the soil temperature is below 10°C and above 30°C.

The suitable humidity for potato plants is 80-90%. Excessive humidity makes plants susceptible to pests and diseases, especially those caused by fungi.

Growing media

Physically, good soil for growing potatoes is a crumbly texture, loose, rich in organic matter, well-drained, and has a deep arable layer. Good physical soil properties ensure the availability of oxygen in the soil. The soil that has this property is the Andosol soil that forms in the mountains.
The pH of the soil suitable for potato plants varies between 5.0 and 7.0, this depends on the variety. For good production, a low pH is not suitable for planting potatoes. Soils with a pH below 7 are limed absolutely.

Place height

The area suitable for potato cultivation is in the highland/mountain area with an altitude between 1,000 and 3,000 m above sea level. The ideal altitude is between 1000 and 1300 m above sea level. Several varieties of potatoes can be grown in the middle plains (300-700 m asl).

Kindergarten

Potato plant seeds can come from; Bulbs, stem cuttings, leaf bud cuttings, and tubers
Seedling tubers come from production tubers weighing 30-50 grams. Choose quite old tubers between 150-180 days, the age depending on the variety, not defective, good tubers, superior varieties. Onions are stored in racks/boxes in warehouses with good air circulation (80-95%). The storage time is 6-7 months at low temperatures and 5-6 months at 250 C.

Choose medium-sized tubers with 3-5 buds. Use tubers that are used as seeds only up to the fourth generation. After about 2 cm of sprouting, the tubers are ready for planting. If the seeds are grown by purchase (try to buy certified seeds) the weight is between 30-45 grams with 3-5 buds. Planting can be done with or without division.

Cut the tubers into 2-4 pieces according to the available shoots. Before planting, the split tubers must be soaked in Dithane M-45 solution for 5-10 minutes. Although splitting saves seedlings, split seedlings produce fewer tubers than unsplit ones. This must be taken into account economically.

Stem cuttings and shoot cuttings

This method is not usually done as it is more complicated and takes longer. Plant material to be taken Cuttings/shoots must be planted in pots. New cuttings can be taken when the plant is 1-1.5 months old and 25-30 cm high.

Cuttings sowed in nurseries

If the seeds use stem cuttings or leaf shoots, take these from healthy, well-growing plants.

Cultivation guidelines

Processing of plant media

The land is tilled 30-40 cm deep until it is completely loose to allow optimal root development and tuber enlargement. Then the floor is left for 2 weeks before beds are made. On flat land, beds should extend west-east for optimal sunlight, while on hilly land, beds should be planted perpendicular to the slope of the ground to prevent erosion.

The width of the beds is 70 cm (1 row of plants)/140 cm (2 rows of plants), the height is 30 cm and the distance between the beds is 30 cm. The width and the distance between the beds can be changed according to the potato variety being planted. Drainage channels are made around the beds with a depth of 50 cm and a width of 50 cm.

Planting technique

Basic fertilization

Organic basic fertilizer in the form of 10 t/ha chicken manure, 15 t/ha goat manure, or 20 t/ha cow dung is applied to the bed surface about a week before planting, mixed with the bed soil, or added to the planting holes. Inorganic fertilizer in the form of SP-36 = 400 kg/ha.

How to plant

Seed preparation

The seed requirement at a spacing of 70 x 30 cm is 1,300-1,700 kg/ha, assuming that the seed bulbs weigh around 30-45 grams.

Set spacing and planting time

The spacing of the potatoes depends on the type of variety. For example, the Manat and LCB varieties have a spacing of 80 x 40 cm, while other varieties are 70 x 30 cm. The correct planting time is at the end of the rainy season in April-June, if the land has good irrigation/water sources, potatoes can be planted in the dry season. Potatoes should not be planted in the rainy season and planted well in when morning/evening.

Make planting holes and mulch

Planting holes are made with a depth of 8-10 cm. Seedlings are placed in the planting hole, covered with soil and the earth is pressed around the tubers. Seedlings grow about 10-14 days after planting. Straw mulch should be sprinkled over the beds if the potatoes are grown on medium soil.

Maintenance

Sew

To replace plants that are not good, embroidery is used. Can be embroidered after the plant is 15 days old. Stick seeds are replacement seeds that have been prepared together with production seeds. Stitching removes dead/non-growing plants and replaces them with new plants in the same hole.

Weeding

Weed continuously and should be done 2-3 days before/concurrently with additional fertilizing and loosening. This means weeding is done at least twice during the planting season. Weeding must be done at a critical stage, namely early vegetative and tuber formation.

Flower cut

Flowering potato varieties should be pruned to avoid disrupting the tuber formation process as nutrients for tuber formation and flowering are contested.

Fertilization

In addition to organic fertilizers, the provision of inorganic fertilizers is also very important for plant growth. The usual fertilizer is Urea at a dose of 330 kg/ha, TSP at a dose of 400 kg/ha, and KCl is 200 kg/ha.

Irrigation

Potato plants are very sensitive to a lack of water. Water regularly but not excessively. Providing adequate water helps stabilize soil moisture as a fertilizer solvent. For potato plants, a regular interval of 7 days is sufficient. Irrigation is done by watering with a bucket/bucket/or by watering the ditch until the planting area is moist (about 15-20 minutes).

Pests and diseases

Pest

Armyworm (Spodoptera litura) Symptoms: Caterpillars attack leaves, eating the epidermis and tissues until the leaves dwindle. Control: (1) mechanically by cutting off the leaves with eggs; (2) Chemistry with Azordin, Diazinon 60 EC, and Sumithion 50 EC.
Aphids (Aphis Sp) Symptoms: Aphids suck liquids and infect plants, and can also transmit viruses to soybean plants. Control: by cutting and burning infected leaves, spraying Roxion 40 EC, Dicarzol 25 SP.

Orong-orong (Gryllotalpa Sp) Symptoms: affects tubers in the garden, roots, young shoots, and young plants. This makes plants susceptible to bacterial infections. Control: Use of Sevin 85 S flour mixed with manure.

The tuber borer (Phtorimae poerculella Zael) Symptoms: dark red leaves and visible gray filamentous plexus, which is the covering material of the caterpillar. When the tubers are attacked you will see holes because some of the tubers have been eaten. Control: a chemical with Selectron 500 EC, Ekalux 25 EC, Orthene & 5 SP, Lammnate L.

tripping pests (Thrips tabaci). Symptoms: There are white spots on the leaves, which then turn silver-gray, and then dry out. The attack begins at the tips of the young leaves. Control: (1) mechanically by pruning the affected leaves; (2) chemically using Basudin 60 EC, Mitac 200 EC, Diazenon, Bayrusil 25 EC, or Dicarzol 25 SP.

Diseases

Late Blight Cause: Phytopthora infestans fungus. Symptoms: small green-grey and slightly moist spots appear, then these spots develop, and the color changes to brown to black with white borders, which are sporangia. Then the leaves rot and die. Control: Antracol 70 WP, Dithane M-45, Brestan 60, Polyram 80 WP, Velimek 80 WP, and others.

Bacterial wilt Cause: bacteria Pseudomonas solanacearum. Symptoms: some of the young leaves on the shoots of the plant wither, and the old leaves, the lower leaves turn yellow. Control: by maintaining garden hygiene, and crop rotation. Chemical eradication can use a bactericide, agrimycin, or Agrept 25 WP.

blight Cause: Fungus Colleotrichum coccodes. Symptoms: Leaves yellow and curl, then wither and dries up. There are brown spots on the part of the plant that is in the ground. As a result of infection, the roots and young tubers rot. Control: through crop rotation, garden rehabilitation, and use of good seeds.

Fusarium disease Cause: Fusarium sp. Symptoms: Infection of the tubers causes blight, which leads to wilting of the plants. This disease also affects stored potatoes. Infection occurs through wounds caused by nematode/mechanical factors. Control: by avoiding injury when weeding and weeding. Chemical control with Benlate.

Dry spot (Early Rot) Cause Alternaria solani fungus. The fungus lives on the remains of diseased plants and breeds in dry areas. Symptoms: infected leaves with irregularly scattered small spots, dark brown, then spread to young leaves. The tuber skin surface is dark, irregular, dry, wrinkled, and hard. Control: with crop rotation.

Diseases Caused by Viruses The viruses that attack are (1) Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) causes leaf curl; (2) potato virus X (PVX) causes latent mosaic on leaves; (3) potato virus Y (PVY) causes localized mosaicism or necrosis; (4) potato virus A (PVA) causes soft mosaic; (5) Potato Virus M (PVM) causes mosaic scrolling; (6) Potato virus S (PVS) causes flaccid mosaicism.

Symptoms: As a result of the infestation, the plant grows stunted, straight, and pale with small tubers / does not produce at all; yellow leaves and dead tissue. The virus was spread by agricultural implements, Aphis spiraecola aphids, A. gossypii, Myzus persicae, Epilachna and Coccinella beetles, and nematodes. Control: No pesticides to control the virus, prevention and control is done by planting virus-free seeds, cleaning equipment, pruning and burning diseased plants, eradicating vectors, and crop rotation.

Harvest and post-harvest

Characteristics and age of harvest

The harvest time for potato plants is between 90 and 180 days, depending on the plant variety. For early potato varieties, the harvest age is 90-120 days; for medium varieties 120-150 days; and for varieties in 150-180 days. Physically, potato plants can be harvested when the leaves are yellowish, which is not caused by disease; The stems of the plant are yellowish and slightly dry. In addition, when the plants are ready for harvest, the tuber skin adheres very strongly to the tuber flesh, and the skin does not come off easily when rubbed with fingers.

How to Harvest It is highly recommended to harvest in the afternoon/morning and on a sunny day. A good method of harvesting is as follows: hoe the soil around the tubers and then carefully lift the tubers with a soil fork. After that, collect the bulbs in a shady place. Avoid mechanical damage during harvest.


By mutaqin