invisible hit counter Soybean cultivation - 10 Downing Nyc

Soybean cultivation

Aug 21, 2022
Soybean cultivation

Soybeans are one of the potential crops that can currently be developed. The needs and high market demand make soybean popular with many people, especially entrepreneurs of soybean-based products as raw materials. To meet the market demand for soybeans, soybean production needs to be increased.

Good-quality soybean plants produce good-quality seeds that can be marketed. To produce good soybean seeds, cultivation is a very important step. The soybean is one of the plants that are sensitive and dependent on changes in climatic conditions so the selection of varieties must be adapted to different soil conditions.

Some things to consider when growing soybeans are:

1. Land preparation

Land for growing soybeans can be well prepared. If the soil does not need to be tilled after rice cultivation, the rice straw should be cut short while it can be sprayed with contact herbicides (direct) or systemic (indirect) herbicides to kill weeds. Drainage/irrigation channels are made about 25-30 cm deep and 20 cm wide every 3-4 m. This channel is used to reduce excess water when the land is too wet and irrigation channels when plants need extra water.

2. Plants

In the dry season, the planting hole should be deeper to avoid drought, while in the rainy season the planting hole should be shallower to avoid root rot caused by wet soil. The distance depends on soil fertility and plant age. The higher the fertility of the soil, the farther away the spacing is used, and vice versa, the lower the soil fertility when using the narrower or narrower spacing. The same applies to the age of varieties, with short-lived varieties (mature) it is better to use closer spacing and vice versa. In rain-fed rice fields, sowing is better done no later than 7 days after the rice harvest. This is done to use soil moisture for seed germination. In dry soil conditions, farmers can make towing tools equipped with water reservoirs. This tool is very effective when it comes to germinating seeds in dry soil conditions.

3. Fertilization

For paddy fields used for rice cultivation, it is enough to apply NPK fertilizer at a dose of 200-300 kg/ha depending on soil fertility. Fertilizer is given evenly between the rows of plants. After spraying fertilizer, give water immediately to avoid plant drought due to fertilizer reaction, or it could be vice versa (give fertilizer after plants are flushed).

4. Casting

Soybean plants are very sensitive to water shortages early in growth during flowering and during pod filling, so plants need to be watered at this stage unless it rains. Some of the waterways may be closed at the time of watering to speed up water absorption in the paddy fields.

5. Pest and disease control

• Several types of pests affecting soybean plants:
• Grauak Caterpillar: Caterpillars eat all parts of the leaves except the leaf bones, so the leaves that are attacked from a distance appear white.
• Pod borer: The usual attack symptom is pod penetration. In addition to pods, young caterpillars also eat leaves and flowers.
• Soybean pod borer: The pod borer is found on the surface of soybean plantations from flowering to harvest.
In general, pest control can be carried out on soybean plants with insecticides when the damage intensity is more than 2% and when 1 pair of adult insects or 2 caterpillars per plant are found in 20 plant clusters (infestation rate reaches more than 2.5%). Several types of diseases affecting soybean plants:
• Root Rot: Root rot disease is caused by fungi attacking seeds before and after emergence on the soil surface. Root and stem rot causes plants to wither at germination and mature plants.
• Stem rot disease: Symptoms of diseased stem rot disease show signs of disease in the form of damage to mature plants on the leaves and even soybean pods.
• Leaf rust: Symptoms appear on the first leaf in the form of spots that develop on the upper leaves as the plant ages. The spots are mainly on the underside of the leaves. The color is reddish brown like a rust color.
Disease control in soybean can be done by first determining the origin of the disease from bacteria, viruses, or fungi so you can find out the ingredients used. If it’s from bacteria you can use a bactericide, or if it’s from a fungus you can use a fungicide, both of which are available at farm stores.

6. Harvest and post-harvest

The harvest is complete when all the leaves of the plant have fallen off, the pods have turned yellow/brown, and have dried up. Harvesting is done by cutting the base of the stem with a sickle to avoid mixing the crop with the soil. Threshing can be done automatically with a Power Treser machine or manually with wood.

Purified seeds can be dried in the sun for 3 to 5 days depending on weather conditions. Plastic bags should be used to store seeds. This should last a long time and not be easily attacked by pests and diseases. Seeds to be used as seeds should have a moisture content of around 9-10% and be stored in a closed container such as a jergen or drum for a limited number of seeds.

Soybean seeds are commonly used as ingredients to make foods like tempeh, tofu, and milk. These products are foods that are in demand by people daily today because the prices are relatively affordable and good for health.

By mutaqin