invisible hit counter Technology for growing dragon fruit - 10 Downing Nyc
Technology for growing dragon fruit

Four types of dragon fruit have been developed, namely white flesh dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus), red flesh dragon fruit (H. polyrhizus), super red flesh dragon fruit (H. costaricensis), and white flesh yellow skin dragon fruit (Selenicereus megalanthus). ). . Each dragon fruit has its characteristics.

Developed from dragon fruit, red-fleshed dragon fruit is more commonly cultivated because it has its advantages, namely the size of the fruit is larger and the color of the flesh is more attractive. The rarely grown dragon fruit is the yellow-skinned and white-fleshed dragon fruit (S. megalanthus) due to the fruit’s relatively small size, although it tastes the sweetest among other dragon fruit species.

Dragon fruit has a fairly complete nutritional content. Each 100g dragon fruit contains 83g water, 0.61g fat, 0.22g protein, 0.9g dietary fiber, 11.5g carbohydrate, 60.4mg magnesium, vitamins B1, B2, C, contains higher phenolic acid The seeds contain linoleic acid as an anti-cancer agent. Besides direct consumption, this fruit can be used as a juice, candy, and jam, which are effective as a blood sugar balancer, oral health protection, cholesterol-lowering, bleeding prevention, and colon cancer prevention.

At present, dragon fruit can still be found on the market as an imported fruit with relatively high prices, especially in areas far from production centers. This shows that the development of dragon fruit has promising prospects. However, there are obstacles to developing dragon fruit, namely the high cost of obtaining seeds and transporting them. The propagation and cultivation techniques are described below.

Dragon fruit plants can be propagated by seeds; The method of propagation using dragon fruit seeds is carried out because large quantities of seeds can be obtained 1 fruit with at least 1000 seeds, which involves collecting seeds of selected fruits from the mother plant and germinating them on wet blotting paper or a mixture of sand clay. Seeds begin to germinate in 3 days – 4 days, and seedlings can be transplanted into pots after 4 weeks – 5 weeks after germination.

Seedlings that have germinated can be transferred to the planting field after 9 to 10 months of age. This method is very simple, however, due to cross-pollination (depending on the plant species), the quality of the new offspring cannot be guaranteed. In addition, seedlings also grow slowly and the time for this is usually 3-4 years longer than plants propagated by cuttings.

In addition, it can be propagated vegetatively; is the easiest and cheapest method just by cutting dragon fruit plants (Cuts). Dragon fruit plants from cuttings begin to flower after 1 year – 2 years of planting. Cuttings can be obtained year-round, but cuttings are preferable after the mother plant is in fruiting season. Cuttings that are a different color than the normal plant color should be avoided.

When propagating by cuttings, preferably whole stem segments or 15 cm – 60 cm cuttings can be used (Zee et al., 2004). The longer the cut, the faster the rate of regeneration of new shoots depending on the amount of food stored. When performing cuttings, oblique cuts are made at the base of the stem. Cuttings on mature plants are better because they are resistant to insect and snail damage.

To prevent the onset of the disease, the cuttings are treated with a fungicide. Cuttings should be done in a cool, dry place for 5-7 days before planting. Cuttings can be planted directly in the field, but common practice is to use potting medium suitable for rooting. Using rooting hormones before planting will promote the speed of rooting. The number of adventitious roots increased when immersed in IBA at 10,000 mg/L. If the rooting hormone is available, it should be used on cuttings as it increases rooting and induces the time required for root development (10 days – 15 days instead of 40 days – 50 days).

The cutting ends should be moistened and soaked in powder for 10 seconds before planting in the ground for normal sowing. These cuttings grow quickly, about 3 cm per day, and develop a strong root system in 4 to 6 months. If the cutting distance is far enough, the cuttings should be wrapped in a damp cloth or paper or a banana stick to prevent moisture loss. Cuttings should be watered regularly, but not excessively, until ready to be transferred to the field. Dragon fruit usually produces a shallow adventitious root system if the poly bag or pot used is allowed to penetrate the soil. A mixture of topsoil, sand, and manure in a ratio of 2:1:1 is used as planting medium, NPK fertilizer can also be added. Soil and sand used for mixed media should be sun-dried for several days to kill pests and diseases.

Cuttings should be about a quarter of the length of the cuttings or about 4cm – 5cm submerged in the soil. After planting, polybags are placed in a shady place to facilitate seed adaptation. Care of the cuttings after planting must be carried out, among other things: a). Pour or give sufficient water, especially in the dry season. Desperately need water to grow shoots; b). shoots grow 1 cm – 2 cm, then fertilizing with NPK 15-15-15 up to 5 grams – 10 grams; c).

Protect seeds from pests and diseases, especially by maintaining sanitation and soil drainage, as seedlings are susceptible to wilt disease or stem rot disease. The cuttings are kept until the shoots are long enough, which is approximately 10cm – 15cm, after which the seedlings will begin to acclimate by being placed outdoors so that the seedlings are ready to establish themselves for 1 week – 2 weeks Weeks to develop in the field then the seedlings are ready for planting.

Dragon fruit plants prefer full sun, so open areas are best for planting. Dragon fruit plants should not be planted in shady places or narrow swampy areas. The soil must be well drained to avoid waterlogging (flooding). The distance to be planted in the field varies depending on the size and slope of the land. In the case of small-scale planting, appropriate spacing should not be used. A larger distance ensures adequate air circulation and reduces disease attacks.

As a rule, a planting hole with a size of 40 x 40 x 40 cm at a distance of 2 m x 2.5 m is made a month before planting, so that around 2000 buffer planting holes are created on 1 hectare. 3-4 planting holes are made for each pole/tree support at a distance of approx. 30 cm from the pole support. The planting hole then receives 5 – 10 kg of cooked manure mixed with soil. Weeding is required on all dragon fruit planting sites up to 1m in diameter around the planting hole. When planting pasture, the grass should be mowed about 1 m in diameter around the planting site.

Making a climbing pole Dragon fruit is a type of cactus plant that climbs, climbing plants need concrete or wooden supports, fences, walls, and trees for support. There should be a bollard for each climbing plant. Dragon fruit plants live 20 years, so the durability of the stalks is very important.

The poles must be strong enough to support the plant for up to 3 – 4 years and withstand a weight of around 100kg, so only hard concrete poles can support dragon fruit plants. Cheap wooden poles are less durable than concrete poles. Also, it is not possible to rotate the half-mast by the growth of the plant as a climber. Therefore, using concrete piles is the best support, even if the initial cost is high. The recommended diameter of the post is 100mm – 150mm at a height of 2m and 40cm buried in the ground.

The maintenance includes a). Watering In the early stages of growth, watering is carried out every 1-2 days. giving too much water leads to spoilage; b). Fertilization: The plants are fertilized with fertilizers at intervals of 3 months up to 5-10 kg. Control of crop pests No potential pest or disease infestations have been identified to date.

Clearing or weed control is carried out so as not to interfere with plant growth. c). Pruning: The main branch (Primary) is pruned after it reaches the height of the support post (about 2m) and 2 secondary branches grow, then each secondary branch is pruned again and 2 tertiary branches grow, which work as production branches. The number of too many dragon fruit branches also means that dragon fruit production is not optimal. The nutrients absorbed by the dragon tree are only used for the needs of the trunk. The normal number of branches is about 4-6 branches/tree. At the time of fruiting, it is necessary to cut the tip of the branch so that the branch does not concentrate on trunk development. So that the nutrients can be diverted to fulfill the dragon fruit enlargement.

The element potassium is very important in the process of formation and growth of dragon fruit. Many natural/organic potassium elements are derived from the base of the banana tree, coconut fiber, organic marine products, fish/animal bones, tea leaves, etc. These natural ingredients are processed through fermentation. Inorganic potassium is obtained from ZK, MKP, and KNO3. Potassium material can be sprayed and sprinkled around the plant as well.

After the plant is 1.5 – 2 years old, it begins to flower and bear fruit. Dragon fruit plants are harvested from fruits that have the characteristics of a glossy red skin color, the tassels/scales turning from green to reddish. Harvesting is done with scissors, the fruits can be harvested when the fruits are 50 days old from the moment of flowering. In the first 2 years. Each support stick can produce 8 to 10 dragon fruit weighing around 400 – 650 grams. The main harvest time for dragon fruit is from September to March. The productive age of this dragon fruit plant is between 15 and 20 years.

By mutaqin