Education is the process of changing the attitudes and behavior of a person or group of people to mature people through teaching and training efforts, so in this case, the definition of education is the process or act of bringing up.
Non-formal education is an educational path outside of formal education that can be carried out in stages and a structured manner.
Non-formal education is an educational pathway whose purpose is to replace, add to and complement formal education. This training can be provided by a special body appointed by the government based on national educational standards. And because it aligns with national educational standards, the outcomes of non-formal education can be equated with formal education.
Non-formal educational goals
And basically in non-formal education, there are two main goals, namely:
- To meet basic learning needs, for example, science, literacy, health and nutrition, general knowledge and civics, and so on.
- Complete in the sense of further education, basic education, and life values education. For example meditation, art education, recitation, Sunday school, and others.
As we know, every person needs lifelong education and learning in their life. Extracurricular education allows each individual to gain new knowledge and experience useful for their development.
However, many children do not have access to education for various reasons. For example, due to parents’ lack of awareness of the importance of education, limited costs, gender discrimination, and others. This is one of the goals of non-formal education, namely to provide access to education for children who do not attend a school or drop out.
Benefits of non-formal education
Non-formal education has institutional advantages that enable citizens to:
- Opportunities for personal development and self-realization;
- the ability to face the challenges of life both in the family and in the community,
- the ability to foster a wealthy family to promote general well-being;
- the ability to increase knowledge of rights and duties as citizens;
- Awareness of nation, state, and society in the context of human and community development;
- Ability to create or help create jobs based on skills available.
In this case, it must be recognized that community development will proceed smoothly when the community has developed a motivation to build and awareness and enthusiasm for self-development and certain skills and abilities that can support it, and grow through educational activities, especially not – Formal education is expected to foster the spirit of building one’s village community as a contribution to the development of the nation at large.
Examples of non-formal education
Non-formal educational pathways can be divided into several groups, including:
Course and training institute
- Courses and training institutions are non-formal educational activities organized by a group of people to provide students with specific knowledge, skills, and mental attitudes. For example:
- Institute for Computer Courses.
- Institute for foreign language courses.
- Institute for Music Arts Courses.
- Institute for craft courses.
Learning groups are non-formal educational activities made up of a group of people who share experiences and skills. The purpose of this study group is to improve the quality and standard of living of each member of the study group.
Community Learning Activity Center is a non-formal education that serves as a place to learn from//the community. The aim is to improve the knowledge, skills, attitudes, hobbies, and talents of parishioners in a way that benefits the community and the environment.
Similar educational unit
This is non-formal education conducted by the community to improve knowledge, skills, and attitudes when the scope is broad and a legal basis is required.
- Training and Advice Center.
- Pre-school “playgroup, day-care center”.
- Padepokan pencak silat.
- Art Studio.
Functions of non-formal education
Non-formal education is designed to develop students’ potential, with an emphasis on functional knowledge and skills, and the development of functional attitudes and personalities. Non-formal education includes life skills, early childhood education, youth education, women’s empowerment education, literacy, skills and vocational training, gender education, and other educational activities aimed at developing students’ skills.
Non-formal education concept
The original concept of non-formal education emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Philip Coombs and Manzoor A., P.H. (1985) showed in their book The World Crisis In Education that education is divided into three types, namely formal education, non-formal education, and informal education.
Specifically for non-formal education, Coombs defines it as an activity organized outside of the mainstream school system, whether undertaken separately or the most important part of a broader activity undertaken intentionally to help specific students achieve their learning goals.
The role of non-formal education
The environment that serves to give birth to educated individuals (educational individuals) is not only the family environment, which is also known as the first environment, the school environment, which is also known as the second environment, but also the community environment, which is also known as the third environment is called environment.
The important role of education in the third environment is known as community environment or non-formal education since humans are social beings. As social beings, human beings themselves consciously become part of various social groups. People themselves are part of families, cities, countries, and religious groups.
But there are also groups that people consciously join, such as sports clubs, trade unions, cooperatives, political organizations, art clubs, and others. Non-formal education is carried out through these groups. Non-formal education can be a complement to formal education, especially when accompanied by crisis-related restrictions.