invisible hit counter Segregation, integration, and inclusion education - 10 Downing Nyc
Segregation, integration, and inclusion education
Segregation, integration, and inclusion education


The segregated education system is an education system in which children with special needs are separated from the general education system. The implementation of a separate education system is specific and separate from the implementation of education for children in general.


Segregated education is a school that separates children with special needs from the regular school system into special education units. As a special education unit, the education system used is completely separate from the education system in mainstream schools, both from the curriculum, teaching, and educational staff, infrastructure to the learning and assessment system. The weakness of this segregated school is that the aspects of children’s emotional and social development are less comprehensive due to the limited social environment.


Facilities and facilities for segregation education

  • There are learning aids designed specifically for students. For example, for the visually impaired such as Braille books, tactile calculators, embossed maps, etc.
  • The number of students in a class is not more than eight people so that the teachers can give individual attention to all students.
  • The social environment is friendly because most of them have the right understanding of children’s disabilities.
  • Accessible physical environment, as it is generally designed with mobility issues in mind
  • Can find successful people with disabilities who can serve as motivation


Advantages of a segregated education system

  • The sense of calm in children is extraordinary.
  • Easy and smooth communication.
  • Specific learning methods according to the children’s conditions and abilities.
  • Teachers with excellent educational backgrounds
  • Easy collaboration with multidisciplinary.
  • Adequate facilities and infrastructure.
  • The feeling that their equal rights with normal children are recognized, especially when it comes to education.
  • Can optimally develop talents, desires, and abilities.
  • Learn about the lives of ordinary people.
  • have the opportunity to continue their education at a higher level.
  • The extraordinary child’s self-esteem increases.
  • Can promote learning motivation.
  • It is easier for teachers to plan and carry out learning because the students are homogeneous.
  • Students do not become the object of ridicule from other normal students.


Weaknesses of the separate education system

  • Limited socialization
  • Education is relatively expensive
  • Free competition
  • Selfish, growing gaps in education quality
  • Effective and efficient for individual interests
  • Cultivate disintegration
  • Not bound
  • Expensive and requires many specific and specialized facilities
  • Weakening of national unity
  • Potential for autonomy development


The results of field observations show that many children with disabilities study with children in general, but do not receive adequate educational opportunities or do not attend school for unclear reasons. This is partly due to a lack of human resources and many experts who do not yet have enough knowledge about children with disabilities or the ratio is very expensive, so there are still few schools willing to accommodate them for the various reasons mentioned above. The organization of inclusive education in schools is good progress, but not as easy as hand. However, we must have the courage to start so that children with disabilities do not get the best place and treatment.


The concept of inclusive education has various interpretations, including:

  • Fully accommodate children with disabilities with children in general
  • Education aimed at optimizing the development of cognitive, emotional, and physical intuition
  • Integrating the education of autistic children into education in general
  • Integrate what you have learned in school into future assignments
  • Integration of man as an individual being and as a social being


The consequence of these changes is that some students who previously may have spent their entire school years in segregated environments are now receiving regular classes. It is therefore important that the regular class teachers feel competent to teach all students.


concept of integration

A broad term that refers to the schooling of a child with special needs in mainstream schools. Can be interpreted in the process of moving a student into an environment that is not too separate. A child with special needs attends mainstream school but is in a special unit or class. Even if the student is in a special class, it is clear that in a class in a mainstream school, the opportunity to interact with school members is generally much greater than for children who are in separate special schools.


Many schools with special needs classes have special programs to encourage interaction between students with and without special educational needs. In some schools, for example, children spend the mornings in special classes and the afternoons in regular classes. Teachers and assistants from special classes usually support placement in special classes. The possibilities of interaction are based on the principle of normalization. It is far from possible if the child is integrated into a regular school.


The advantages and disadvantages of integration pedagogy

Compared to the segregation system, this integration system is a further development, namely:

  • Students with special needs can play alongside students in general. This means that the socialization process takes place as early as possible, with students with and without special needs getting to know each other and vice versa. This will have an impact on the development of these students’ attitudes, which will also be useful later as adults.
  • Students with special needs experience a more competitive atmosphere because there are more students in public schools than in special schools.
  • Students with special needs can build better self-confidence.
  • Pupils with special needs can go to school anywhere, including schools close to where they live, as long as they meet the requirements; So you don’t have to be separated from their families.
  • In terms of curriculum, children with special needs receive the same curriculum as students in general through enrollment in public schools.


The weakness of this integrated system is that students with special needs have to adapt to existing teaching methods and curricula. At certain times, this state can be difficult for them. For example, when the students have to take the subject “Drawing”. Of course, because of their visual impairment, students with special needs cannot “draw”. However, since this subject is compulsory in a ‘strict’, ‘inflexible’ curriculum, teachers and students with special needs can’t make ‘adjustments or substitutions’ – for these ‘drawing’ subjects. Substitution means replacing the subject with another task with the same competency value. For example, drawing is a subject that trains right-brain creativity in the visual field; can be replaced by other tasks that have the same or equivalent competency goals, for example, writing.




Inclusive schools are regular schools that coordinate and integrate regular students and students with special needs in the same program, one way to prepare educators for children with special needs is the importance of inclusive education, not just achieving the goal of education for all and 9 years of basic education, but more achievements not only fulfill human and children’s rights, but above all the well-being of the children, because inclusive education begins with recognizing the change in people’s beliefs that is part of the whole. It makes children with special needs feel calm, confident, valued, protected, loved, happy and responsible. Inclusion takes place in all social environments of children, in families, in peer groups, in schools, and in other social institutions.


Inclusive education is an approach that aims to transform the education system by removing barriers that can prevent any student from fully participating in education. Inclusion is a hands-on change that provides opportunities for children of diverse backgrounds and abilities to learn successfully. This change will not only benefit children who are often excluded, such as B. children with special needs but all children and their parents, all teachers and school administrators, and every member of society.



Inclusion includes children with special needs. But broadly inclusive also means including all students without exception, such as:

  • Children who speak a language other than the language of instruction used in the classroom.
  • Children who are at risk of dropping out of school because of illness, starvation, or poor performance.
  • Children from different religious groups or castes.
  • children infected with HIV or AIDS and
  • Children of school age but not in school.


The basic principles of inclusive education that distinguish it from an integrated system, let alone segregation, are:


  • All children, whoever they are, have the right to study in any school, and schools must accept students, whoever they are.
  • Every child/pupil is a unique individual, so the education system must be flexible and allow teachers to make adjustments to meet the specific needs of each pupil.
  • A country’s education system must be a unified system, and the education system for children with disabilities is an integral part of the general education system; not separate or special.


Public school teachers must have the insight and skills to teach students, whoever they are. For this reason, the initial and further training of teachers must adapt to this system. Inclusion means that it is your responsibility as a teacher to assist in the recruitment and delivery of educational services to all children by school boards, communities, families, educational institutions, health services, community leaders, and others.


 Advantages of the inclusive education system:

The benefits of inclusive education for children with special needs and children, in general, can interact fairly with each other according to the demands of everyday society and their educational needs can be met according to their respective potentials.




Weaknesses of the inclusive education system:

The lack of supportive institutions for the inclusive education system and the limited knowledge and skills of teachers in inclusive schools show that the inclusive education system has not been properly prepared. Furthermore, the current general curriculum system does not take into account the existence of children with different abilities (disabilities). So it seems that the inclusive education program seems to be just an experimental program.


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