invisible hit counter Shallots Cultivation - 10 Downing Nyc

Shallots (Allium ascalonicum L.) belong to the Liliaceae family and are annual vegetable plants, short-lived, and are propagated either vegetatively via tubers or generatively via seeds (TSS = True Shallot Seed). In general, shallots are consumed daily as a kitchen spice and can also be used as a traditional medicine to reduce the fever of sick people.

GROWING REQUIREMENTS

Shallots are suitable for cultivation in lowland to highland at an altitude of 0-1000 m above sea level. The optimal height for the growth and development of shallots is between 0 and 450 m above sea level. Onion plants are sensitive to rain and high precipitation intensity, as well as foggy weather. This plant requires maximum sunlight (at least 70% radiation), an air temperature of 25-32°C, and a humidity of 50-70%.

Shallots require soil with a crumbly texture, medium to loamy texture, good drainage and aeration, sufficient organic matter, and a neutral pH (5.6–6.5). The most suitable soil for bulbous plants is alluvial soil or its combination with Glei-Humus or Latosol soil. Shallot plants prefer sufficiently moist soil with water that is not stagnant.

The best time to plant shallots is in the dry season with sufficient watering. Planting of shallots in the dry season is usually done on former paddy fields or sugarcane while planting in the rainy season is done on dry land. Shallots can be planted in mixed cultures with red chili plants.

CULTIVATION

1. seeds

Generally, shallots are propagated using bulbs as seeds. The need for seed tubers is between 800 and 1500 kg per hectare. The quality of the seed bulbs is one of the factors that determine the high and low yields of shallot production. Good bulbs for seed need to come from fairly old plants, which is around 60-90 days after planting (depending on the variety). Onions should be medium in size (5-10 g).
The appearance of the seed bulbs must be fresh and healthy, pithy (firm, not wrinkled) and light in color (not dull). Seedling bulbs are ready for planting when they have been stored 2–4 months after harvest and the shoots have reached the end of the tuber. A good way to store seed bulbs is to store them in the form of bindings on a kitchen stove or in a special storehouse by smoking.

2. Land preparation

On dry land, the soil is plowed or hoed to a depth of 20-30 cm. The beds are made 1-1.2 m wide and 25 cm high, the length depending on the nature of the soil.

On ex-rice fields or former sugar cane fields, the soil is initially adjusted to the soil conditions with a width of 1.75 cm, a ditch depth of 50–60 cm a ditch width of 40–50 cm, and a length. The condition of the beds followed the east-west direction. The treated soil is allowed to dry and then worked again 2-3 times until loose before the beds are neatly repaired. The time required from digging, and plowing the soil (e.g. 1, excavating 2, cocrok) until the soil is loose and ready for planting is 3-4 weeks. The remaining rice/sugar cane plants can become a growing medium, so they need to be cleaned.

When tilling the soil, especially on acidic soils with a pH less than 5.6, it is recommended to apply Kaptan/Dolomit at a dose of 1–1.5 ton/ha/year at least 2 weeks before planting, which is considered sufficient for the next two growing seasons. Distribute Kaptan / Dolomite over the surface of the earth and then stir evenly. The provision of dolomite is important to increase the availability of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) nutrients, especially in acidic soils or areas intensively cultivated for vegetable crops. In intensively farmed areas, the application of dolomite up to 1.5 tons/ha can increase the wet and dry weight of the shallots.

3. Planting and fertilizing

a. Plant shallots in dryland/bog
The fertilization consists of basic fertilizer and supplementary fertilizer. The basic fertilizers are cow manure (15-20 tons/ha) or chicken manure (5-6 tons/ha) or compost (2.5-5 tons/ha) and TSP fertilizer (120-200 kg/ha). This basic fertilizer is distributed evenly with the soil and stirred one to three days before planting. Secondary fertilizers, on the other hand, are urea (150-200 kg/ha), ZA (300-500 kg/ha), and KCl (150-200 kg/ha). The first top-dressing was done at 10-15 days of age after planting and the second top-dressing at 1 month of age after planting, each dose.

Seedlings ready for planting are dirompes, cutting the tops of the seeds is carried out only when the shallot seeds are not ready to be planted properly (80% growth of shoots into tubers). The purpose of cutting seed bulbs is to break the dormant period and accelerate the growth of plant shoots.

b. Planting shallots in paddy fields (former rice)
The fertilization consists of basic fertilizer and supplementary fertilizer. Basic fertilizer in the form of artificial TSP fertilizer (90 kg P2O5/ha) is applied one to three days before planting and mixed evenly with the soil. Subsequent fertilization in the form of 180 kg N/ha (½ N urea + N ZA) and K2O (50-100 kg/ha). The first top-dressing was done at 10-15 days of age after planting and the second top-dressing at 1 month of age after planting, each dose.

Seedlings ready for planting are Dirompes, where the tops of the seeds are only cut off when the shallot seeds are ready for planting (80% growth of shoots into tubers). The purpose of cutting seed bulbs is to break the dormant period and accelerate the growth of plant shoots.

4. Maintenance

Although the onion plant does not like a lot of rain, this plant requires sufficient watering during its growth. Planting on former paddy fields requires adequate watering in the hot sun. In the dry season, it is usually watered once a day, morning or evening, from planting until harvest age. Watering in the rainy season is only to wash the plant’s leaves off the soil clinging to the shallot leaves. During the critical shallot season, due to a lack of water, bulbs form, which can reduce production. To overcome this problem, it is necessary to regulate the water table (especially in former paddy fields) and the frequency of watering of shallot plants.

Weed growth in young shallots up to 2 weeks of age is very fast. Therefore, weeding is a must and very effective in reducing competition from weeds.

5. Control of plant pest organisms

Thirteen species of pests and diseases are known to attack shallot plants, including Liriomyza chinensis, Thripstabaci, Alternaria porii, Fusarium sp., Anthracnose, and others. Yield loss due to pest infestation is around 26-32%.

Control with integrated pest control technology, namely:
• Control of technical crops, including balanced fertilization, use of disease-resistant varieties, and use of natural enemies (parasitoids, predators, and insect pathogens).
• Mechanical control, namely turning or cutting diseased leaves or groups of Spodopteraexigua eggs, use of mosquito nets, use of different types of traps (sexpheromones, yellow traps, light traps, etc.).
• Use of biopesticides.
• Selective use of pesticides based on control thresholds. Control with plant protection products must be carried out properly, both in the selection of type, dose, spray volume, application method, interval, and time of application.

6. Harvest and post-harvest

Shallots can be harvested after they are quite old, typically 60-70 days old. Shallots were harvested after showing signs of 60% softened stems, fallen plants, and yellowed leaves. Dry tuber production reaches 6-25 tons/ha. Harvesting should be carried out in dry soil conditions and sunny weather to prevent blight diseases in storage.

The harvested shallots are then tied to the stalk for easy handling. In addition, the bulbs are sun-dried to dry sufficiently (1-2 weeks) by exposure to direct sunlight, followed by grouping based on the quality of the bulbs. Drying can also be done with a special dryer (oven) until a moisture content of about 80% is reached. If not sold immediately, shallot bulbs are obtained by hanging bunches of shallots in a special warehouse

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