Education is very important in human life. Especially in the current age of modernization, which is characterized by sophisticated technology and easy access to information and communication, without knowing space, borders, and time, this is possible at any time. Therefore, education is required to face all challenges.
Education itself is defined as a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and process so that students actively develop their potential to have spiritual strength, religious self-control, personality intelligence, noble character and abilities to be recognized by the community, and the nation and are needed by the state. The purpose of education in Indonesia is contained in the introduction to the fourth paragraph of the 1945 Constitution, namely to educate the life of the nation. According to Article 3 of Law No. 20 of 2003 on the National Education System, national education has the task of developing skills and shaping the character and civilization of a worthy nation in the context of the formation of the nation. While the purpose of national education is to develop the potential of students to become people who believe in and fear God Almighty, have a noble character, are healthy, knowledgeable, able, creative, independent and democratic and responsible citizens will.
From these expressions, especially the national education goals, it can be seen whether Indonesia was able to implement them or not at all. Education in Indonesia has not been fully achieved due to many influencing factors, but that does not mean that education in Indonesia is static. The government has done its best to ensure that its citizens receive the best possible education. All that matters is how citizens take advantage of this opportunity.
Law No. 20 of 2003, as the overarching law on education, regulates education in general. Everything related to education from pre-school to higher education is regulated in this law.
Article 1(2) of the National Education System Law reads: “National education is education based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, rooted in religious values and Indonesian national culture and responsive to the demands of changing times.” This means that educational theories and practices applied in Indonesia must be rooted in Indonesian culture and religion.
The reality shows that we do not yet have the typical educational theories that correspond to the culture of the country. We start building it. Our pedagogical theory is still evolving.
The characteristics of the Indonesian national education system given by Redja Mudyahardjo are as follows:
The Indonesian national education system is rooted in the culture of the Indonesian nation, namely the culture that arises from an effort to cultivate the Indonesian people in the form of an ancient and original culture, a new culture that is being developed to advance civilization, culture, and Unity by not rejecting foreign cultures, which can develop and enrich one’s culture and strengthen the humanity of Indonesian nation. The Indonesian national education system is rooted in diversity or Bhineka Tunggal Ika. The Indonesian education system needs to absorb and develop the geographic, demographic, socio-cultural, socio-political, and socio-economic characteristics of regions across Indonesia within the framework of Indonesia’s unity and integrity.
The formal legal basis of the Indonesian national education system is ideally Pancasila as the basis of the state as stated in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution and the regulatory/regulatory character is based on Article 31 paragraphs (1) and (2) of the 1945 Constitution. Paragraph 2 of Article 31 reads: “Every citizen is obliged to attend elementary education and the state is obliged to pay for it.” This verse specifically speaks of 9 years of elementary education and the desired target is citizens with a minimum level of education in middle school. In this paragraph, there are two words “compulsory” that have an impact on the further implementation of the compulsory education program. This means that every child of primary school age (6-15 years) is obliged to attend primary and middle school. Because it is mandatory, if not, there should be legal sanctions against his family and also for his children. It must be clear what sanctions will be imposed on them. There should be no excuse for a child not going to school because they don’t want to go to school or because their family can’t afford it because the state obliges them to do so.
National Education aims to educate the life of the nation. The life of an intelligent nation is the life of the nation in all areas, politics, economy, security, health, and so on. Ever stronger and evolving to bring justice and prosperity to every citizen and country so that they can withstand any turmoil. The second goal is to develop the Indonesian people as a whole, namely people who believe in and fear God Almighty and are virtuous. have knowledge and skills. Have physical and mental health. Have a solid and independent personality, as well as a sense of community responsibility and pride. Law No. 20 of 2003 Article 3 states that national education is to develop skills and shape the character and civilization of a worthy nation in connection with the formation of the life of the nation, to realize the potential of To develop disciples to become people who believe and fear Almighty God. , be of noble character, be healthy, knowledgeable, able, creative, independent and become democratic and responsible citizens.
National education is a comprehensive activity and educational unit designed to be implemented and developed to contribute to the achievement of national goals. Popular education has the main task that every citizen has the right to education (Article 31 of the 1945 Constitution). Opening up as many opportunities as possible through school and extracurricular education that follows the principle of lifelong learning. National Education states that the school education pathway consists of three main streams, namely elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. The curriculum, students, and educational staff cannot be separated into teaching and learning activities. Centralized and non-centralized educational management. The administrative transformation is carried out centrally, while the educational transformation is carried out in a decentralized manner in the educational unit. The organization of educational units and activities is the responsibility of the family, community, and government. National formation stipulates that community-organized educational units and activities are free to organize according to their respective characteristics or peculiarities, so long as they do not conflict with Pancasila as the basis of the state, ideology, and way of life of the nation. National education offers students the opportunity to receive an education that matches their talents, interests, and goals to be achieved, and facilitates educational units and activities to adapt to environmental changes.