As we know, the system is a component that works together to achieve a goal. The education system is a strategy or method used in the teaching and learning process to achieve the goal of enabling students to actively develop their potential.
An education system is very necessary because this later regulates the course of education in a country and becomes the guideline for the course of the education process. The education system consists of several components consisting of input, process, output, environment, and outcomes. These components have specific functions that perform a structural function to achieve the goals of the system. This time I will discuss the definition of these components and try to identify problems with these components.
Input in the education system
Input is input that is processed in a system to later produce output and results. Inputs to the education system can be divided into three types, namely raw input (raw input), instrumental input (tool input), and environmental input (environmental input). Raw input is processed into output, instrumental input guides the path through the process, and environmental input supports the educational process. The most important inputs in the education system are the basis of education, educational goals, and students.
- basic education
The basis of education is the values that underlie the implementation of education in a place. In Indonesia, according to Law No. 20 of 2003 on the National Education System Article 2 that “national education is based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia”. This means that the implementation of education must incorporate the values taught by Pancasila.
- educational goals
The purpose of education is the expectation of popular education according to Law No. 20 of 2003 on the National Education System Article 3 reads: “Aims to develop the potential of students to become people who believe in and fear God Almighty, have a noble character, are healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative and independent, and democratic citizens become responsible.” But in its implementation, it is not yet perfect this time because it still develops values and does not develop creativity and character development.
Learners are members of the community seeking to develop their potential through a learning process available in specific pathways, levels, and types of education. Students are one of the most important components of education because they are the ones who are being learned by the educators and who are also putting those teachings into practice.
The educational process is a pedagogical sub-activity of educators aimed at achieving educational goals. The quality of the educational process leads to two things, namely the quality of the components and the quality of the management.
The components that support each other in the educational process are:
a. educators and teaching staff
According to Law No. 20 of 2003 relating to the National Education System, educators are educational personnel qualified as teachers, lecturers, consultants, tutors, widyaiswara, tutors, trainers, mediators, and other designations according to their specificity and participating in the provision of education. Educational staff is members of the community who are dedicated to the implementation of education and are appointed. Educators are not only responsible for the provision of teaching materials, but also the personality development of the students. This is still very rare as most educators are still indifferent to the students and only think “teaching matters”.
The curriculum is a set of plans and agreements regarding the objectives, content, and learning materials, and the methods used as guidelines for conducting learning activities to achieve specific educational goals. Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow researched the results of studies on children which suggested that the relationship between one component of education, namely the curriculum, and the students, was as follows:
- Curriculum adapted to the child’s development
- Curriculum content includes skills, knowledge, and attitudes that children can use in their current experiences and that will be useful in dealing with future needs.
- Children are encouraged to learn on their own and not just passively learn from the teacher
- Materials should follow the child’s interests as they develop and not adults’ decisions about their interests
c. facilities and infrastructure
Educational facilities and infrastructure are all types of devices used by educators and students to facilitate the delivery of learning content. The main problem with facilities and infrastructure is unequal procurement, so not all students can equally accept the delivery of material in Indonesia.
Educational administration is an activity related to structuring the sources, use, and accountability of educational funds in schools or educational institutions. Financial management activities include budgeting, bookkeeping, and auditing.
A budget is a cost plan that is created with a detailed plan. A budget is an organized plan for receiving and disbursing funds within a specified period.
Environment of the education system
The educational process is always influenced by the environment, whether it supports or hinders the achievement of educational goals. The environment that influences the educational process, namely:
- Family environment.
- School environment or educational institution.
- Community Environment.
- Religious environment, namely religious values that live and develop around educational institutions.
- Socio-cultural environment, namely social and cultural values that live and develop around educational institutions.
- The natural environment, both climatic and geographical conditions.
- Economic environment, namely the economic conditions that surround educational institutions and the community that surrounds them.
- Security Environment, both security around educational institutions and outside of educational institutions.
- Political environment, namely the political situation in the area where the educational institution is located or provides education.
Output to the education system
Output is the result of the process that takes place in the education system. The result of the education system is the creation of quality graduates and the reduction of early school leaving.